Technical Textiles / Technische Textilien 3/2023

VISIT US AT: TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET ISSUE 3 20 23 ENGL ISH D 3 3 3 9 F TECHNICAL FIBERS, TECHNICAL TEXTILES, NONWOVENS IN THIS ISSUE Fibers News Technical Textiles E-textiles Composites market Building textiles Medical textiles Business location Germany ITMA Preview

SCHOTT & MEISSNER Maschinen- und Anlagenbau GmbH Rudolf-Diesel-Straße 32 D-74572 Blaufelden Phone +49 7953 885-0 1 2 1 TwinHeatModule - THM equipped with electrical heaters grant the customer flexibility in production and allow the use of CO2-neutral energy for their production. 2 AirCleanModule - ACM equipped with a continouse filter belt to increase performance of natrual fiber processing as well as fibers with high dust content. Our contribution to more sustainability »alternative heating sources (electric, hydrogen, steam, oil) for all our machinery »Heat recovery system “ERTEC-Series” for belt and drum ovens 3 3 » TwinHeatModule - THM Vistit us at ITMA! Hall 10, Booth No. C210 NEW AND WELL ESTABLISHED MACHINERY Our new modules “TwinHeat” and “AirClean” for our well-known belt oven series “TopCon”. The latest developed modules can be offered for new Schott & Meissner production lines as well as retrofitted to existing machines with little effort. » AirCleanModule - ACM

Dr.-Ing. Tim Höhnemann Competence Center Chemical Fibers and Nonwovens German Institutes for Textile and Fiber Research Denkendorf (DITF) Denkendorf/Germany Index23 review In April 2023, the nonwovens community met once again for one week in Geneva for the Index23, which is now back in its usual 3-year event cycle. According to the organizers, 12,000 attendees were present, as well as 610 exhibitors from 43 countries; the exhibition space was almost fully booked. Overall, a significantly increased frequency of discussions was noticeable compared to the pandemic-related postponed Index20 in autumn 2021. Face-to-face exchanges with existing contacts were as welcome as the potential initiation of new business relationships; both for industry and research. Edana's General Manager, Murat Dogru, summed it up aptly: “We are here to do business, but the nonwovens industry has shown me that our supply chain is also one big family. The exhibition was accompanied by a comprehensive supporting program: Product presentations by a large number of exhibitors, a series of informative seminars, the Index Lab, and also the naming of the winners of the Index Innovation Awards in 5 categories. The main topics both in the supporting program and on the exhibition stands were, as usual, wide-ranging. Face masks were no longer the dominant topic, but a focus on hygiene coupled with a commonly noticeable trend towards sustainability was favored. The latter was not only highlighted with different, often green-brown stand colors, but was also reflected in a large number of new developments/highlights presented by the exhibitors, as well as in the visitors' inquiries. These included topics such as development of sustainable raw materials (polymer manufacturers), reduced need for process energy (machine builders), improved product properties with the same raw material input or, possibly, substitution of raw materials with sustainable alternatives (product manufacturers). With the frequently used buzzwords bio-based, biodegradable, and recycling, questions of actual sustainability remained: • Kelheim Fibres, Sandler and Pelz Group are jointly bringing a plastic-free viscose-based panty liner onto the market, and TWE is launching a viscose-based super-soft backsheet. • Sandler is presenting a 1-polymer molded nonwoven (100% polyester, of which 80% is recycled) that is said to be not only particularly easy to recycle, but also features high dimensional stability and adaptable acoustic properties. • With its "In The Loop" initiative, Thrace presents a closed-loop model that involves all participants in the value chain to recycle raw materials in a controlled manner. • Polymateria and Indorama claim the bio-transformation route of a polyolefin that degrades to a bioavailable wax within 3-5 months. • Another example of raw material advancement comes from polymer manufacturer NatureWorks, which introduced the new PLA Type 6500D, demonstrating noticeably increased softness in the product. • Making haptics quantitatively accessible through measurement of roughness, elasticity and hardness is on the agenda of the measurement instrument developers Emtec Electronics. Its Tissue Softness Analyzer has been expanded to include a crumble test head. • In the area of measurement technology, Palas achieves access to low(est) concentrations of 200 particles/cm³ in filtration efficiency testing with the developed "full flow sensor". • Various innovations were also presented in the auxiliaries- finishing-application technology area. Among other things, Herrmann Ultraschall showed 2 interesting developments for dispensing with additional components, which provide solutions in hygiene applications: the fixing of elastic threads without adhesives and the direct forming of the material into a complete hook closure (hook-forming). • The plant manufacturer Oerlikon Nonwoven also focused its innovations on the hygiene sector, although the so-called Phantom technology – an innovative co-form technology for the production of wipes, such as wet wipes made of pulp and polymer fibers – primarily advertises ecological as well as performance and cost advantages. In addition, Oerlikon also promoted its hycuTec hydro-charging solution under the aspect of potential savings. • The topic of softness was the focus of attention at the plant manufacturer Reicofil. The company presented its new RF5XHL production platform. The suffix XHL stands for Extra High Loft and is aimed at super-soft and perfectly drapable nonwovens for the hygiene industry. • Dilo announced the possibility of needling fine fibers with its Micro-Punch technology and high resource efficiency while avoiding the use of water compared to the usual water jet process. With regard to innovations and highlights on the part of the mechanical engineering sector, it became clear that the ITMA, the world's largest textile machinery trade fair, is just around the corner in Milan/Italy in June 2023. This is where the major novelties and innovations in technologies will be presented. "For us, the Index is a preparatory platform for the ITMA, where we will finally present our new highlights for the first time," sums up Johann-Phillip Dilo, Managing Director of the DiloGroup. 3 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 LEADER

CONTENTS LEADER 3 Index23 review T. Höhnemann NEWS 6 – 17 DETAI LS SEE PAGE 6 FIBERS & YARNS 18 – 19 Process to produce bio-based adipic acid Toray Industries 20 – 24 CF / AR / thermoplastic hybrid yarns for requirement-based thermoplastic composites M. Overberg 25 – 27 Engineered functional textiles from recycled fibers M. Shilpa I S SUE 3 | 2023 | VOLUME 6 6 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 28 – 29 Acidic coating – textile finishing for the prevention of microbial growth O. Etemad-Parishanzadeh, J. S. Gutmann, T. Textor 30 – 31 Tailor-made products using 3D printing Karl Mayer Group 32 – 33 Textile facade elements absorb rainwater and cool buildings and urban space ILEK 34 – 36 Innovative sensor technology and smart e-tattoos T. Lauwigi 37– 39 Development of an intelligent, user-friendly, routine system for biofeedback-based pelvic floor training D.E. Jachan, C. Linti 40 – 41 Flexible scoliosis orthosis with 3-dimensionally acting translational and rotation mechanisms M. Lochno, C. Eisert 42 – 43 Visual intelligence for optical inspection systems – interaction of hardware and software J. Höhne 44 Predicting coating properties from simple extraction methods O. Deußen, L. Zibula Page 20 –24 Page 30 – 31 4 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 CONTENTS

WWW.TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET NONWOVENSTRENDS 45 Increasing demand for advanced wound dressings and biomedical textiles Marketysers Global Consulting LLP 46 – 48 Influence of gradient structure on functional characteristics of PET nonwovens G. K. Tyagi, ITMA PREVIEW 50 – 71 DETAI LS SEE PAGE 50 MANAGEMENT 24 Heike van de Kerkhof, Mark Garrett 24 Ben Selby, Kim Poulsen 31 Paul Kiekens 36 Harald Neumüller, Hermann Adrigan 36 Seshadri Ramkumar 39 Robert van de Kerkhof 39 Tommi Björnman STATEMENT 74 ... let's be clear: Germany is leaving the Premier League W. Rauch, M.M. Zimmer INFOS 72 Calendar 73 Company index 73 Imprint Cover photo: Cycling gear from Q36.5 with 4D-GRDXKN printing technology (Source: Q36.5). Report on p. 13 Page 24 –25 5 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 CONTENTS

Closure of production in Germany NEWS OVERV I EW Page 6– 17 COMPANY: Lenzing On course for recovery after difficult start COMPANY: Advansa Closure of production in Germany COMPANY: AMSilk Extension of Series C Financing COMPANY: Teijin Frontier Technology for removing PU elastomer fiber from apparel EVENT: Techtextil/Texprocess 2024 Innovations and sustainable solutions for the future ASSOCIATION: Edana Nonwovens production at a higher level than pre-Covid COMPANY: IDTechEx The future of the e-textiles industry COMPANY: Trützschler 75th anniversary in Mönchengladbach ASSOCIATION: AVK World market for composites increases to 12.7 million tons ASSOCIATION: ITMF Expectations booming in textile industry COMPANY: GRDXKN Collaboration with Q36.5 for cycling apparel COMPANY: Freudenberg 75 years of Vlieseline INSTITUTE: NIRI Prototype-scale labs for cost-effective biopolymers ASSOCIATION: ECHA Input on proposed PFAS restriction sought COMPANY: Autoneum Acquisition of Borgers Automotive successfully completed COMPANY: Porcher Industries Partnership with Terre de Lin COMPANY: A.Celli Start-up of complete end-of-line at PFNonwovens COMPANY: DyStar Restructuring plan for Ludwigshafen plant facility COMPANY: Lenzing FOCUS: Business In the first quarter (Q1) of 2023, Lenzing saw signs of recovery in demand as well as in raw material and energy costs, after the market environment had deteriorated significantly in Q3 and Q4 of the previous year. Textile fibers recorded moderate but steadily improving demand. Business with fibers for nonwovens and with dissolving wood pulp performed better than expected. Raw material and energy costs were still at an elevated albeit decreasing level. Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, succeeded in increasing revenues by 1.3% to €623.1 million in Q1/2023. This growth was primarily due to higher pulp revenues, while fiber revenues were down. As a consequence, EBITDA decreased by 66.2% year-on-year to €29.7 million in Q1/2023. Since 2021, Lenzing has invested more than €200 million in production sites in China and Indonesia in order to convert existing capacities for generic viscose into capacities for environmentally responsible specialty fibers. In Nanjing/China, the conversion of a production line to Tencel modal fibers for textiles and apparel was successfully completed in Q1/2023. For the first time, Lenzing can thereby also offer locally produced Tencel fibers to its Chinese customers. Tencel, Lenzing, Ecovero = trademarks On course for recovery after difficult start COMPANY: Advansa FOCUS: Business In October 2022, the polyester manufacturer Advansa Manufacturing filed for insolvency. Now the responsible Insolvency Administrator, Holger Rhode, has agreed with the Creditors Committee to prepare the manufacturing plant for a closure scenario. This will lead to the closure of the manufacturing facilities and subsequent liquidation of the company in the coming months. Despite many efforts, it was not possible to find a viable concept for the continuation of production and healthy operation of Advansa Manufacturing GmbH, Hamm/Germany. It is expected that production will continue in coming months under the supervision of the administrator in order to consume raw material stocks and to be able to fulfill open and new orders to customers. Next page 6 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

COMPANY: AMSilk FOCUS: Business Further funding is enabling AMSilk to accelerate industrial scale-up and expand commercial operations of bio-fabricated silk protein materials. On April 4, 2023, MIG Capital AG, Munich/Germany, a venture capital investor, extended Series C financing of its associated company AMSilk GmbH, Planegg/Germany. AMSilk has successfully raised an additional €25 million led by existing investor ATHOS (AT Newtec) with participation from Novo Holdings, Cargill, and MIG Capital, bringing the total investment to €54 million. On the part of MIG, among other things the new MIG Fund 17 is involved. AMSilk's innovative technology platform produces biotechnologically manufactured materials based on silk proteins that are used in a wide range of applications such as textile fibers, medical applications and consumer products. Proceeds from the financing will enable AMSilk to accelerate the ongoing scale-up of its industrialization and commercialization projects worldwide, to meet the ever-increasing demand for the company’s innovative materials. AMSilk’s unique bio-fabrication reprograms micro-organisms to enable them to produce silk proteins into usable forms such as powders, hydrogels, fibers, and coatings. Coupled with its unique fermentation process, this allows the company to produce complex proteins in large quantities for various market segments including textiles, medical use or consumer goods. AMSilk’s bio-fabricated silk materials are 100% protein, fully biodegradable and do not include any source of microplastics. Extension of Series C Financing The winding down of production operations in Hamm has no direct impact on the current business operations of the other Advansa Group companies, neither Advansa Marketing GmbH, Hamm, which will continue its operations as a supplier for all European and worldwide customers, nor the Advansa BV, Hoofddorp/Netherlands, which owns the relevant IP and trademark rights. Advansa has prepared for this eventuality and has access to significant fiber production capacities in Indonesia together with its affiliated company Asia Pacific Fibers TBK (APF), Jakarta/ Indonesia, as well several ongoing manufacturing cooperations and technology agreements with OEM producers. 7 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

COMPANY: Teijin Frontier FOCUS: Innovation EVENT: Techtextil/Texprocess 2024 FOCUS: Innovation A new foreign material removal technology to eliminate polyurethane (PU) elastomer fiber from discarded polyester apparel has been developed by Teijin Frontier. The technology features a new processing agent used during the pre-treatment phase of the chemical recycling process, which helps improve the quality of the recycled polyester fiber that is derived from clothing containing PU elastomer fiber. In addition to removing the PU elastomer fiber, the new technology eliminates foreign materials such as dyes, and helps to omit the decolorization process of polyester fiber. The new foreign material removal technology swells the PU elastomer fiber, breaks the chemical bonds and dissolves them with the new processing agent. Simultaneously, the agent eliminates foreign substances including dyes to optimize decolorization of the polyester fiber. For system cost control and environmental load reduction, the processing agent can be collected and reused. Recycled polyester materials generated by this method can be used in the existing chemical recycling process. Teijin Frontier Co., Ltd. Osaka/Japan, has been conducting tests of this new technology since October 2022 for practical use. As part of its initiative focused on polyester fiber, the company is working with the supply chain to establish a comprehensive ecosystem spanning apparel collection, sorting and recycling. The new foreign material removal method should help expand the scope of fiber-to-fiber recycling and contribute to a zerowaste society. Stretchable polyester clothing that contains PU elastomer fiber is becoming popular as the demand in the industry for quickdrying, wrinkle-resistant, and comfortable-to-wear is increasing along with the trend to casual wear. However, as conventional chemical recycling technology for polyester assumes 100% polyester products, the quality of the recycled product deteriorates when PU elastomer fibers are included. Therefore, it is important to remove PU elastomer fiber from discarded polyester clothing. The planning for the Techtextil and Texprocess trade fairs from April 23-26, 2024, in Frankfurt/Germany is off to a promising start. Exhibitors from over 40 countries have already registered to take part. This also includes exhibitors who decided not to participate in 2022. In 2024, for example, Brazil will be represented again. The coming trade fair editions will revolve around the theme of sustainability and present future-oriented solutions for the textile industry. Start-ups are given a high-visibility platform. The Techtextil and the Texprocess reflect the innovative power of technical textiles, textile manufacturing and processing technologies. This is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of exhibitor presentations and a comprehensive complementary program, including the Innovation Awards of both events. All product segments, from fibers and yarns to nonwovens and coated textiles, including textile manufacturing technology, will be presented at the Techtextil. Numerous organizers of joint stands have declared their participation. From Germany, for example, the IVGT - Industrieverband Veredlung - Garne - Gewebe - Technische Textilien e.V. (Industrial Association for Finishing - Yarns - Fabrics – Technical Textiles), VDMA Services GmbH with the VDMA Textile Machinery, the Saxon joint stand organized by the Verband der NordOstdeutschen Textil- und Bekleidungsindustrie (Association of the North-East German Textile and Clothing Industry) or Bayern Innovativ with a joint presentation. Internationally, country presentations from China, France, Italy, Japan, Spain, the Czech Republic, Turkey and Switzerland are already announced. Start-ups Young, innovative companies receive special attention at the Techtextil and the Texprocess. They can be targeted in a separate area and have the opportunity to present their products to international decision-makers. At the trade fairs, they can find new business partners and customers. They also benefit from international media interest and can access new target groups. Denim processing of the future Visitors to both events will find special shows tailored to their interests. For example, a separate area at the Texprocess is devoted to denim production and processing. Here, visitors can experience innovative approaches for the growth market of denim at first hand. Technology for removing PU elastomer fiber from apparel Innovations and sustainable solutions for the future New foreign materials removal technology 8 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

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An overview of the high-level figures from the Edana Statistics Report on Nonwovens Production and Deliveries for 2022 has been released by the international association serving the nonwovens and related industries, Edana, Brussels/Belgium. The source data was supplied by Edana member companies. The questionnaire received by nonwovens producing members is very wide and assesses many elements including CO2 emissions, and new for 2022, energy consumption. After a spike caused by the exceptional increase in demand for nonwovens materials in 2020 and 2021 due to the Covid-19 pandemic, (+9.3% in 2020-2021), production in Greater Europe (including Western and Eastern European countries, Turkey, Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine) is back on track. The figures, while Nonwovens production at a higher level than pre-Covid lower than during Covid-19, have returned to pre-pandemic levels and a steady growth trend can again be seen despite the economic and energy crisis, and the war in Europe. In 2022, compared to data from 2019, nonwovens production in Greater Europe increased in volume by 3.3% to reach over 3 million tons, and by 9.1% in surface area resulting in 85.8 billion m² of nonwovens being manufactured. This conclusion can be refined according to the different production processes. Some processes, such as drylaid-hydroentangled and air-through bonding, recorded an even higher output in 2022 than in 2021. While, the production of other fiber-based materials, including drylaid, wetlaid, and airlaid technologies, were below the levels observed 3 years earlier. The production of spunmelt nonwovens was down again after peaking in 2021, but the 2022 output was still 8.1% over its 2019 level. Similar conclusions can be drawn from the end-use perspective. Nonwovens market segments such as hygiene, medical, building construction, filtration, electronic materials, and wipes, which were almost flat or had significantly decreased compared with their 2021 levels, were still well over figures observed in 2019. There were some exceptions in other durables applications, where nonwovens sales were still below 2019 levels: automotive interiors (-27.8%), agriculture (-13.1%), and civil engineering (-4.6%). In 2022, the most notable increase was in table linen applications, which exceeded both 2019 and 2021 levels. ASSOCIATION: Edana FOCUS: Business 10 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

----INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS AND MATERIALS Multi-stage ThermoPress and ScatterPro systems for composite products and materials for the automotive and transportation industry. • A world leader in double belt presses and precision scattering systems. • Modular design enables multiple stages in one continuous production line. • Processes include pressing, lamination, impregnation, cooling and scattering. • Efficient solutions for bodywork, panels, insulation and other interior/ exterior materials. • Sustainable solutions: stronger, lighter components to support industrial decarbonisation. Find our more at See us at ITMA, Milan 8-14 June · Hall H10 Stand B310 COMPANY: IDTechEx FOCUS: Business A shirt that can track a person's heart rate, a shoe that can measure gait – the integration of electronic components with textiles to form e-textiles has been a significant research interest for several years. The promise of seamlessly incorporating electronics into our daily lives through e-textiles has also drawn much industry interest, including efforts from major players such as adidas and Nike, together with millions of dollars in funding for start-ups in the space. IDTechEx, Cambridge/UK, has released "E-Textiles and Smart Clothing Markets 2023-2033: Technologies, Players, and Applications", a market research report exploring the technologies and markets of the e-textiles industry. Of the various applications of e-textiles, biometric monitoring has received particular interest. Relevant products include smart shirts for detecting warning signs of cardiovascular disease, EMG-integrated trousers for athlete coaching, and smart insoles to identify warning signs of foot ulcers, among many others. While early interest in such products revolved around the sport and fitness market, efforts and funding have since shifted towards healthcare and medical applications. The recent Covid-19 pandemic has only highlighted the importance of remote monitoring systems, and e-textiles may potentially see greater penetration into this growing market. The new report surveys more than 40 companies looking to develop biometric monitoring devices through e-textiles to provide detailed insights into the status of this emerging application. Not all e-textiles remain at such an early stage. For example, heated clothing has a mature value chain with established manufacturing practices and products being sold worldwide under hundreds of different brands. In addition, textile heaters may be integrated with car seats and potentially offer reduced energy usage, thus allowing for an increased range of electric vehicles. The scope of e-textiles is vast, spanning multiple product types; from clothing to bed linen and industrial fabrics, new products appear throughout various verticals as this technology area is increasingly explored. The new report uses research compiled over 10 years and a database of over 200 companies in the sector to provide information on various insights and opportunities for this market. With coverage of each major product type, primary applications and markets, and forecasts up to 2033 based on several years of historic data, this is a comprehensive study of this technology. The future of the e-textiles industry 75 years ago, the manufacturer of textile machinery Trützschler GmbH opened its headquarters in Mönchengladbach/Germany. The company's main customers include spinning mills from all over the world who use Trützschler technologies in a wide range of different applications. Trützschler supports its customers with recycling textiles and producing sustainable yarns from production waste or old textiles. The company also provides its customers with advantages when it comes to digitalization, which plays a central role in global markets. Examples include intelligent and self-optimizing machines, as well as digital platforms for optimizing processes and saving resources. The Mönchengladbach headquarters are the center of all Trützschler activities. Over 800 of the company’s 3,000 employees work at this site. The development, production, sales, administration, and service activities are anchored here. The team at headquarters also coordinates other locations worldwide, including sites in Switzerland, the USA, Brazil, India and China. Global sales activities are steered from Mönchengladbach, too. The company also has a long tradition of training young people. 75th anniversary in Mönchengladbach COMPANY: Trützschler FOCUS: Anniversary 11 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

Like all industries, the composite industry has been affected by strong negative forces in recent years. Like many sectors of the economy, the industry was hit particularly hard during the Covid pandemic. The war in Ukraine and sharp price increases for raw materials, energy and logistics subsequently had a highly negative impact on the economic climate, especially in 2022. The AVK - Industrievereinigung Verstärkte Kunststoffe e.V., Frankfurt/ Germany, has published its annual market report on fiber-reinforced plastics/composites. According to the latest figures from the JEC Group, Paris/France, the volume of the global composites market in 2022 totaled 12.7 million tons. Compared with 2021, when the volume was 12.1 million tons, this was an increase of around 5%. By comparison, European composites production in 2022 declined by 6.1%. The overall European composites market thus went down from 2.96 million tons in 2021 to 2.78 million tons. Europe’s share of the world market was therefore around 22%. America’s market share was on a similar scale. Asia’s global market share, on the other hand, was as high as 50%. As in previous years, however, developments within Europe were not homogeneous. This is due to highly diverse regional core markets, substantial variability of the materials used, a broad spectrum of different manufacturing processes and widely differing areas of application. Accordingly, different developments both regionally and, above all, with regard to different processes could be seen – although, in 2022, a decline could be observed in all regions and for nearly all processes. The only materials that saw growth were continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) and carbon fiberreinforced plastics (CRP). In terms of volume, the largest part of all composite production flowed into the transport sector, which continued to account for more than 50% of the market volume. The next 2 largest sectors were construction and infrastructure, on the one hand, and electrical and electronics, on the other. The global business situation in the textile industry has been negative since June 2022 and continues to decline. Companies around the world and across all segments face a scenario with high production costs and relatively low demand. At the same time, companies’ expectation for the business climate in 6 months-time have been improving since November 2021. It is unclear if this growing optimism about the mid-term future is due to a believe that the situation cannot get much worse or anticipation for a well-founded economic normalization. These are the main results of the 19th Global Textile Industry Survey (GTIS) World market for composites increases to 12.7 million tons Expectations booming in textile industry You can find further information on this market report on → ASSOCIATION: AVK FOCUS: Business ASSOCIATION: ITMF FOCUS: Business by the International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF), Zurich/Switzerland. Order intake has also steadily decreased since November 2022, mostly in line with the trend in the business situation. The rate of decline has nevertheless slowed down in March 2023, likely due to weak demand. “Weakening demand” has indeed been rated the major concern in the global textile value chain since July 2022 and its importance has even grown in the last survey. Inflation remains another major concern worldwide. The expected improvements for the 2nd half of 2023 are supported by a relatively low level of order cancellations and stabilizing inventory levels. 53% of respondents to the 19th GTIS recorded no order cancelations during the last 4 months (down from 58% last January). The phenomenon is stronger in South America and touches spinners and weavers relatively more. 58% of respondents also rated inventory levels as average. The number of companies reporting high inventory levels is greater in Asia and Europe. Among segments, it is the highest for home textile producers. 5% 12 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

The 4D GRDXKN printing technology allows the printing of protection into the fabric of the material, preventing abrasions resulting from a fall or dragging on the road at high speeds. In collaboration with the sports textile manufacturer Q36.5, GRDXKN has developed a bib short and a jersey top using the state-of-the-art technology. The B2B collaboration between GRDXKN Technology, Munich/Germany, and Q36.5, Q&E srl, Bolzano/Italy, aims to develop the most efficient textiles for cycling apparel while providing the highest comfort and protection for the racing cyclist. The bib shorts and jersey top are abrasion resistant and shock absorbent. The material has been tested in crash simulations at up to 100 km/h. In this way, optimum protection is offered for road racers. Particularly innovative is the rear ventilation of the printed areas, which ensures a comfortable wearing. GRDXKN technology thus offers not only protection, but also maximum comfort for the cyclist. With this innovation, the company has once again shown that 4D printing technology is ushering in a new era in textiles and sportswear. 4D printing technology enables the printing of features. At the same time, the weight of the textiles remains low and flexibility high. The integrated, volume-forming material is abrasion-resistant and shock-absorbent (tested). The printing technology transforms substrates into smart textiles. This cohesive material combination creates new application fields for textiles. GRDXKN = registered trademark The multipurpose interlining fabric that adds stability, shape and warmth to garments, Vlieseline, is celebrating its 75th jubilee. The iso-elastic nonwovens interlining from Freudenberg Performance Materials Holding SE & Co. KG, Weinheim/ Germany – developed by Dr. Carl-Ludwig Nottebohm – is not only used in the textile industry but also from sewing enthusiasts and fashion houses. The material was initially developed as a substitute fabric and produced for the first time in 1948. Offering an optimal fit, stylish effects and a cozy warmth, Vlieseline products lend a certain something to custom accessories, garments and creative handicrafts. In terms of sustainability, the fabric is up-to-date with products made from natural fibers such as soy, bamboo and cotton, nonwovens made from up to 100% recycled materials such as PET bottles and environmentally friendly production processes. Vlieseline = registered trademark Collaboration with Q36.5 for cycling apparel 75 years of Vlieseline COMPANY: GRDXKN FOCUS: Cooperation COMPANY: Freudenberg FOCUS: Anniversary 13 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

Environmental imperatives such as the EU’s ambition to become the first carbon neutral continent by 2050 are transformational for the nonwovens industry, and the introduction of novel materials demands the input and collaboration of materials, textile, chemical and mechanical engineers. This is an area of applied research for the expert multidisciplinary team at the Nonwovens Innovation and Research Institute Ltd. (NIRI), Leeds/UK. The demand to reduce CO2 emissions, globally, includes those generated from polymer production, nonwovens production, converting and product assembly processes, and end of product life concerns. In this context, the shift away from fossil fuel-derived ma- terials to alternative materials is leading a transformation in nonwovens. However, looking at alternative biopolymers, for fiber/filament formation, there are currently a range of options available, including: • Reconstituted/regenerated polymers from agricultural resources (starch: starch binders; cellulose: viscose rayon, lyocell, modal) • Polymers from microbial production: PHA, PHBV • Polymers synthesized from agricultural resources into biopolymers: PLA, PCL, PBAT, PBS, PGA • Polymers synthesized from bio-resources into conventional polymers: bioPET, bioPP, bioPE, bioPA To achieve trouble-free processing and conversion of novel materials using conventional equipment is one challenge. The current alternative approach is to adapt conventional equipment to achieve trouble-free processing. Whichever route is pursued, for novel materials to be commercially viable they must meet the specifications and performance demands of the materials and products they are to replace. Prototype-scale labs for cost-effective biopolymers INSTITUTE: NIRI FOCUS: Innovation NIRI’s laboratories are equipped with prototyping-scale equipment to assess processability, explore polymer combinations with processing and performance additives, and to optimize process conditions for biopolymer extrusion into filaments, spunbound, and meltblown nonwovens. Equally, the demand to match the specification and performance properties of novel materials to conventional fabrics and products can be met. Laboratory-scale prototyping machines allow for cost- effective and time-effective changes to be made to the prototypes. This means a rapid succession of adaptations can be made, less intensive in material use, leading to effective optimization to provide confidence before more costly pilot and production trials take place. Once nonwoven webs are successfully formed, they require bonding. Carded, airlaid and wetlaid webs from novel biopolymers can be assessed for bonding using NIRI’s extensive range of bonding techniques, including mechanical (which requires no additional materials to consolidate webs into fabrics), thermal, and chemical. The main requirements for binders are their compatibility with diverse application methods – including spraying, coating, printing, and saturation – affinity to fibers, and bonding strength. As in the case of fiber and web formation, NIRI’s prototyping-scale bonding equipment is ideal for assessing the binder’s processability, exploring polymer combinations, and optimizing process conditions for bicomponent biopolymer extrusion into filaments, as well as the implementation of bonding techniques. The specifications and performance properties of the biopolymer prototypes can be tested according to industry standards using the analytical facility. ASSOCIATION: ECHA FOCUS: Restriction Input on proposed PFAS restriction sought The 6-month consultation on the restriction proposal, prepared by the Danish, German, Dutch, Norwegian and Swedish authorities, opened on March 22, 2023, and closes on September 25, 2023. The consultation is to give anyone with information on PFAS the opportunity to have their say. Of particular interest is information relevant to the risks, socio-economic aspects and alternative substances. Interested parties are invited to send in scientific and technical information on the manufacture, placing on the market and use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by September 25, 2023. The ECHA’s scientific committees for Hydrophobic fabric Next page 14 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

The acquisition of the automotive business of Borgers, announced in January 2023, has been completed with effect from April 1, 2023, following receipt of all anti-trust approvals. As a result, Autoneum now operates 67 production facilities worldwide and employs around 16,100 people in 24 countries. With the acquisition of the long-established German company, Autoneum is further expanding its global market leadership in sustainable acoustic and thermal management of vehicles. For the planned capital increase of around CHF 100 million for the long-term financing of the acquisition, the shareholders approved the creation of a capital band at the Annual General Meeting (AGM) on March 23, 2023. The purchase agreement signed on January 6, 2023, to acquire the assets of the insolvent companies of Borgers SE & Co. KGaA, Bocholt/Germany, by Autoneum Management AG, Winterthur/Switzerland, could be completed. As a result, Autoneum has taken over the assets of the Borgers companies in Germany and the shares in the subsidiaries in France, Poland, Sweden, Spain, the Czech Republic, the UK and the USA, as well as in the company in Shanghai/China, with effect from April 1, 2023. The enterprise value paid amounts to €117 million. The product and customer range of Borgers Automotive, the specialist for textile acoustics protection, insulation and trim for vehicles, ideally complements Autoneum’s sustainable product portfolio. Particularly with the wheel arch liner and trunk lining product lines as well as the truck business, Autoneum’s global presence offers further potential for profitable growth also outside Europe. Acquisition of Borgers Automotive successfully completed COMPANY: Autoneum FOCUS: Business Risk Assessment (RAC) and for Socio-Economic Analysis (SEAC) will use the consultation input to evaluate the proposed restriction and form an opinion on it. An online information session was held on April 5, 2023. During the session, experts from the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), Helsinki/Finland, and the 5 national authorities explained the restriction process, the content of the proposal and how to participate in the consultation. They also responded to questions from the participants. The 5 national authorities submitted the universal proposal to restrict PFAS to ECHA on January 13, 2023. The European Commission, together with the EU Member States, will eventually decide on the potential restriction based on the proposal and the committees’ opinion. A separate 60-day consultation of SEAC’s draft opinion concerning ECHA’s proposal to ban the placing on the market, use and formulation of all PFAS in firefighting foams is open from March 15 until May 15, 2023. Information concerning firefighting foams should be submitted in this consultation. 16,100 PEOPLE 24 COUNTRIES 15 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

Restructuring plan for Ludwigshafen plant facility COMPANY: DyStar FOCUS: Business Specialty chemical company DyStar plans to restructure its facility in Ludwigshafen/Germany. The strategic decision is made by the company in response to changing business conditions and market shifts. The company will focus on developing key emerging markets, which have been shifting over a decade. In the wake of higher energy costs and inflation, the company is determined to further improve cost efficiency and drive sustainable productivity. The facility has been an integral part of the company’s global network. DyStar inherited this facility from its founders, who started the indigo research and manufacturing more than 125 years ago. The restructuring of this facility will be carried out in a phased manner. DyStar will diversify the production activity out of Europe and start with the reduction of manpower as a consequence. Customers are assured of undisrupted supply. DyStar will also work with local authorities and HR to support affected employees during this period. The specialist in technical textiles and high-performance thermoplastic composites, Porcher Industries, has strengthened its partnership with Terre de Lin, a leader in flax fiber production. This non-exclusive technical and commercial cooperation aims to develop sales of flax fiber-based reinforcements for thermoplastic composites implemented by thermocompression. The new Polypreg Flax/TP thermoplastic composite reinforcements woven by Porcher Industries SA, Badinières/France, from these flax rovings, combined with the chemical expertise of the company, constitute lightweight bio-reinforcements for making parts with a semi-structural appearance by ultra-fast thermocompression with infinite visual appearances. TDL Technique, a subsidiary of Terre de Lin, Saint-Pierre-le- Viger/France, is currently developing flax/thermoplastic rovings, aiming to bring increased productivity to the use of flax fiber in composites and better manage the end-of-life for recycling. This environmentally conscious range is the answer to increasing designer demands for composite parts. This partnership allows Porcher Industries to guarantee very large volumes for top vehicle and aeronautics suppliers, as well as sports brands seeking this high performance thermoplastic material with a lower environmental impact and which is easily recyclable. After 6 A.Celli lines acquired over the years for their plant in Hazleton, PA/USA, PFNonwovens signed the order acceptance for the complete end-of-line provided for the new Reicofil R5 line, following the successful start-up at the beginning of March 2023. The scope of supply from the producer of nonwovens machinery A.Celli Nonwovens, Lucca/Italy, for the project in object included an E-Wind wave axial/surface driven master roll winder with a design speed of 1,100 m/min, stock stations for the handling of Master Rolls, E-Wind Supersonic off-line slitter rewinder, with a design speed of 1,800 m/min, E-Wind Corematic Evo for automatic shaft handling and core cutting, and R-Way automatic packaging system with 2 robots, vertical and horizontal wrapper and label verification system. PFNonwovens Holding s.r.o. (PFN), Prague/Czech Republic, a producer of nonwovens for use in the personal hygiene market such as baby diapers, adult incontinence, feminine hygiene products, and wipes, produces high-loft and ultra-soft products on its new Line 9 and is also pushing the lower end of basis weights for other spunbond products. This range has put a very high demand on the various A.Celli components: foremost to ensure that the delicate properties are maintained throughout the process, and second that roll goods are achieved with consistent high quality. E-Wind, R-Way = registered trademarks Partnership with Terre de Lin Start-up of complete end-of-line at PFNonwovens COMPANY: Porcher Industries FOCUS: Cooperation COMPANY:A.Celli FOCUS: Business 16 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023

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F I BERS & YARNS Technology FIG. 1 Process to produce bio-based adipic acid Adipic acid is a raw material for polyamide 66 (PA 66). Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo/Japan, has developed a 100% bio-based adipic acid from sugars derived from inedible biomass. This achievement came from using a proprietary synthesis technique combining the company’s microbial fermentation technology and chemical purification technology that harnesses separation membranes. The company has started to scale up its capabilities in this area. It will test polymerization of PA 66, develop production technology, conduct market research, and take steps to commercialize applications for this bio-based adipic acid by around 2030. Toray Industries, Inc. Tokyo/Japan PA 66 has been used for many years in fibers, resins, and other applications due to its exceptionally durable, strong, and rigid properties. Pressures to develop eco-friendly PA 66 have risen in recent years amid a growing awareness of the need to realize a sustainable society. One challenge is that conventional chemical synthesis for producing adipic acid, the raw material of PA 66, generates a greenhouse gas called dinitrogen monoxide. Toray now discovered micro-organisms that produce an adipic acid intermediate from sugars. The company reconfigured metabolic pathways within micro-organisms to enhance production efficiency by applying genetic engineering technology, which artificially recombines genes to streamline synthesis in micro-organisms. It also employed bioinformatics technologies to design optimal microbial fermentation pathways for synthesis. Quantity of the intermediate synthesized by micro-organisms has increased more than 1,000-fold since the initial discovery, and the efficiency of synthesis has improved dramatically. The company is using reverse osmosis separation membranes to concentrate the intermediate in the purification process. This approach is more energy efficient than other methods that do not use these membranes. This bio-adipic acid production technique is free of dinitrogen monoxide emissions, unlike the manufacturing processes for petroleum-derived adipic acid and is expected to help combat global warming. Toray is developing a process for producing sugars from crop residues and other inedible plant resources. Sugars from this process could be used as raw materials for bio-based adipic acid. The company would thus be able to create a total supply chain to make chemicals from inedible biomass, helping pave the way to a circular economy. It’s achievement is partly attributed to joint research with the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba/Japan, and RIKEN, Saitima, Japan’s largest comprehensive research institution. That effort is part of 2 projects that the 3 partners are undertaking with funding from the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Japan. The first project is “Development of Production Techniques for Highly Functional Biomaterials Using Plant and Other Organism Smart Cells”, and the second ongoing project is “Development of bio-based production technology to accelerate Carbon Recycling”. Under the Toray Group Sustainability Vision, the company aims to assist the international community pursue sustainable development by offering innovative technologies and advanced materials solutions. The new bio-adipic acid production technology is part of its drive to become carbon neutral by 2050 and should help the world overcome challenges in achieving circular economy. Bioinformatics technology Designing the optimal fermentation pathway by selecting the mostefficient chemical reactions fromall theavailablemicrobial metabolic pathways (consisting of several thousand reactions). CO2 Sugars Plants (Inedible biomass) Membranebased purification Adipic acid Hexamethylene diamine Microbial fermentation PA 66 18 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 FIBERS & YARNS

Membran types MF UF NF RO Fermentation broth components Micro-organisms Proteins Biomolecules Multivalent ions Medium-size molecules Intermediate Size (µm) Application effect Removal of impurities Concentration Membrane-based purification technology for biochemicals Evaporation Verdampfen RO membrane Conventional concentration: Energy-saving concentreation FIG. 3 FIG. 2 FIG. 4 MICROBIAL FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY Enzymes produced from microbial genes carry out chemical reactions to convert sugars into the intermediate. (Fig. 2) References 1. Development of Production Techniques for Highly Functional Biomaterials Using Plant and Other Organism Smart Cells, activities_ZZJP_100118.html 2. International Demonstration Projects on Japan's Energy Efficiency Technologies/ Demonstration Project for an Energy-Saving Cellulosic Sugar Production System Using Bagasse, activities_AT1_00175.html, english/news/AA5en_100389.html 3. Toray’s water treatment membranes, 4. Toray’s New Frontiers Research Laboratories, organization/laboratories/lab_008.html GENETIC RECOMBINATION TECHNOLOGY The genetic recombination technology allows deletion or insertion of genes for more efficient synthesis. (Fig. 3) Sugars Sugars Adipic acid Hexamethylenediamine Nylon 66 Intermediate Intermediate Microbial fermentation Enzymes Dilue solution Dilue solution Water Water Water Water Concentrated solution Concentrated solution Concentrated solution Chemical reaction Sugars Intermediate A B C Membrane-based purification Genes Platns BIOINFORMATICS TECHNOLOGY Designing the optimal fermentation pathway by selecting the most efficient chemical reactions fromall the availablemicrobial metabolic pathways (consisting of several thousand reactions). CHEMICAL PURIFICATION TECHNOLOGY USING SEPARATION MEMBRANES Microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and nanofiltration membranes separate and remove unwanted components in microbial fermentation broth. Reverse osmosis membranes concentrate intermediates. Use of RO membranes can reduce energy consumption compared to conventional concentration by evaporation. (Fig. 4) 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 Intermediate Intermediate Impurities Micro-organism 19 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 FIBERS & YARNS

CF / AR / thermoplastic hybrid yarns for requirement-based thermoplastic composites Within the framework of the IGF research project (21004 BR / 1), material concepts based on 2 yarn formation technologies were realized at the ITM and carbon fiber / aramid / polyamide 6 (CF /AR/ PA 6) and recycled carbon fiber / recycled aramid / polyamide 6 (rCF / rAR / PA 6) hybrid yarns for thermoplastic composites meeting requirements with very good, scalable stiffness, strength, crash and impact property combinations were produced. The influence of carding, draw frame and roving frame (MK1) and air texturing unit (MK2) parameters and fiber volume fractions on the mechanical properties were analyzed to develop requirements-based and defined engineered yarns and composites based on them. The investigated yarn formation technologies complement or partly compete with each other, but thereby also represent a broad technology spectrum. This generates a broad effect for the application of the results for product development in numerous German small and medium- sized enterprises (SMEs) and often on a few technologies specialized SMEs for textile technology. Matthias Overberg, Anwar Abdkader, Chokri Cherif Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology at the Technical University Dresden (ITM), Dresden / Germany Introduction, problem definition and aim Fiber-reinforced plastic composites are designed according to required stiffness and strength or impact and crash properties. Complex, overlapping load scenarios are only taken into account to a very limited extent. There are first practical approaches for realizing composite components, e.g. the B-pillar of an automobile.1 Here, composites (e.g. carbon fiber prepregs) are combined with metallic components (e.g. steel sheets) in order to achieve the necessary damage tolerance along with high weight-specific stiffness and strength. In such concepts, hybridization takes place at the macro (structural level) or meso (yarn level) level and requires extremely complex and cost- intensive manufacturing processes.2 - 4 Furthermore, these components also have highly pronounced interlaminar interfaces, where complex stresses generate high shear stresses. As a result, premature structural failures occur due to delamination .5 - 8 In order to overcome these disadvantages and for use in future developments, a concept is developed and implemented in the project presented here. The approach provides the design of the combination of various fiber components by hybridization at the micro-level (within a yarn/ fiber level), thus maximizing their property potentials. The use of recycled highperformance fibers also results in significant advantages over conventional composites in terms of sustainability, resource efficiency and cost-effectiveness. The project aims to create a new 3-component class of materials hybridized at the micro level for thermoplastic lightweight applications. By combining the reinforcing fibers such as carbon and aramid, it is possible to combine high stiffness and strength with high crash and impact properties by varying the reinforcing fiber proportions and fiber makeup in a way appropriate to the load case. Fig. 1A schematically shows the properties of state-of-theart CF/AR hybrid composites (Fig. 1A bottom, highlighted by an ellipse) according to state-of-the-art, from engineered yarns to be developed (top, area within the dashed lines) and the theoretical material potentials (top, colored lines), each depending on the fiber volume fractions. The systematic investigation of the influence of the material-specific fiber volume fractions for a scalable composites design was carried out in 5 stages (CF / AR or rCF / rAR: 50 / 0, 40 / 10, 25 / 25, 10 / 40, and 0 / 50 %). The development work focused on 3 main areas. The 1st focus was the further development of the process technology so that the composites based on engineered yarns exhibit high strength and stiffness due to low fiber damage, high uniformity and high fiber orientation. The 2nd focus was the first-time implementation of the homogeneous blending of 3 fiber materials at the micro-level. The 3rd focus was designing the engineered yarns so that very good, scalable stiffness, strength, crash and impact property combinations can be set explicitly for a wide range of requirements (Fig. 1A). 20 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 3 | 2023 FIBERS & YARNS