Technical Textiles/Technische Textilien 2/2023

VISIT US AT: TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET ISSUE 2 20 23 ENGL ISH D 3 3 3 9 F TECHNICAL FIBERS, TECHNICAL TEXTILES, NONWOVENS IN THIS ISSUE Fibers News Evonik/AMSilk Fairbrics /DITF Gencrest Lenzing Nanollose/Birla PHP Fibers Renewcell SGL Carbon Technical Textiles Tire cord Composites for trains Textile insoles Textile dike protection Natural fibers for technical textiles Textile meets plastics

FUTURE. FUNCTION. PERFORMANCE. Beyond innovation The leading international trade fair for technical textiles and non-wovens showcases the entire spectrum of the industry. Experience unique future-oriented textile and technology innovations, sustainable solutions and out-of-the-ordinary ideas from the textile world in an agile trade fair environment. 23.– 26. 4. 2024 FRANKFURT / MAIN part of in parallel with

74804_TT_AZ_Allgemein_vorab_INDEX_210x297 • FOGRA 39 • CMYK • js | DU: 24.03.2023 Hendrik van Delden Senior Partner Gherzi Textil Organisation AG, Zurich / Switzerland Textile meets plastics During the month of April, a growing number of company representatives will be traveling to the ‘Parc des Expositions‘ in Villepinte close to Paris/France. This is the date of the leading global fair for the composite industry (the JEC World) – meeting the constantly growing interest of textile producers. Composites can also be summarized under the generic term FRP (fiber reinforced plastics). This term gives a good description of the 2 main components of composites namely fibers (the reinforcing, load bearing element) and plastic (also called matrix) as the forming (non-load bearing) element in the molded part. Looking back some decades, the fiber component was in essence based on chopped glass fiber – be it as short fibers (for injection molding) or as fiber mat, e.g. for parts produced in the SMC (sheet molding compound) process. Therefore, when Renault introduced the first generation of the Espace van (multi-purpose vehicle) in 1984, the car’s body was produced in the SMC process. Significant weight savings versus an equivalent alternative produced in steel could not, however, be realized with the (chopped fiber based) SMC process as exploited in the corresponding Renault factory. Saving weight in comparison to metal-based alternatives – this understanding was then quickly gaining ground – required a number of conceptual changes: • Use of continuous fibers (so-called rovings) instead of chopped fibers • Use of reinforcements produced using textile manufacturing technologies (such as wovens, multiaxial NCF fabrics or braids) • Eventually – dependent on the part and application – replacement of glass fibers by para-aramid or carbon fiber-based reinforcements. Initially high-performance composites based on these new concepts were restricted to the aeronautic industry and some niche-applications like in racing cars. Today high-performance composites occupy a large share of the market including volume applications like mobility, infrastructure or wind-energy. Market developments over the last decade have been marked by certain trends, which also are of importance for textile companies intending to grow in the composite domain. According to the AVK (Federation of Reinforced Plastics) – and assumptions by the author (concerning year 2022 market data) – the European Composite market has, with about 3,065 kt in 2022, already exceeded the pre-Covid volume. In comparison to 2011, the overall market has grown by 28% in 2022. Within this overall market scenario, however, very different growth trends can be observed when analyzing the time span 2011-2022: • Thermoplastic compostites have grown by 45% (to about 1,735 kt in 2022) in comparison to thermoset composites, where the volume in the afore-mentioned time span (20112022) has only grown by 13% • The volume of carbon fiber reinforced composites has tripled (to about 58 kt in 2022) in the same period • NCF (non-crimp fabric) reinforced composites have been able to grow their volume – partially at the expense of wovens – by 45% to about 320 kt in 2022. What are now the key issues for textile companies upon their entry into the composite domain? One of the first volume markets for composite reinforcements were glass fiber wovens for PCB’s (printed circuit boards). The delocalization of these markets to Asia and the backward integration of Asian PCB producers into glass fiber wovens some decades ago came as a – in parts survival threatening – shock to European weavers in the composite reinforcement field. Even today it is not easy to operate profitably as a pure weaver of glass fiber (GF) or carbon fiber (CF) reinforcement fabrics. This is also due to the fact that large multinational GF or CF producers today also supply dry (non-impregnated) wovens. Only the establishment of an impregnation unit (for fabrics impregnated with plastic resin – so-called prepregs) – including the required plastic resin know-how – creates possibilities for differentiation by offering customer specific solutions with higher margins. Multiaxial NCF fabrics, on the other hand, and - due to their high growth rates – still attractive even as dry (non-impregnated) textile substrates. Here one can still observe technological leaps (e.g. the processing of spread rovings – so-called tapes) having the aim to achieve a higher fiber content in the molded part. Furthermore, molded parts based on natural fiber reinforcements (flax) enjoy a strong growth in demand. Also resin impregnated prepreg-tapes or prepreg-rovings show an enormous future potential, e.g. for continuous fiber reinforced injection molded parts or in the domain of (winding technology based) pressure vessels. Important for the entry of textile enterprises into composite markets is the establishment of in-house plastic resin knowhow. Only in this way can textile companies successfully conceive and implement a strategy of differentiation against the big producers of the composite industry. 3 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023 LEADER

CONTENTS LEADER 3 Textile meets plastics H. van Delden NEWS 6 – 17 DETAI LS SEE PAGE 6 FIBERS & YARNS 18 – 19 Eco-friendly and sustainable fibers for Sporttec M. Basuk, R. V. Adivarekar 20 – 21 Cattail fiber and its potential applications T. Karthik 22 – 24 Synchrotron radiation for the analysis of inorganic fibers - especially basalt fibers H. Lichtenberg, J. Hormes, W. Klysubun 26 – 29 Solutions with recycled PET HMLS for automotive applications T. Buss 30 – 31 Post-consumer plastics – from yogurt cups to high-quality textiles S. Lukoschek, C. Callhoff I S SUE 2 | 2023 | VOLUME 6 6 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 32 – 33 Fire, smoke, and toxicity requirements for composites in trains and trams E. Moussiaux 34 – 36 Composite textiles and the many layers of opportunities Stratview Research 37 – 39 Textile insoles A. Hulle 40 – 43 Textile dike protection (TeD) A. Schmieder ! Page 40 – 43 Page 26 – 29 4 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023 CONTENTS

WWW.TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET MANAGEMENT 8 Stefan König, Hans Buehler 8 Mark Snider 16 Janne Silonsaari, Sirpa Koskinen 16 Francis Murphy 36 Ricardo Fasolo, Neil Johnson, Chris Roeder, Paul E. Rollin, Jodi Russell, Julie Schertell 44 Peter Bolten, Christian Prause 44 Kim Scholze, Rüdiger Fox STATEMENT 46 Natural fibers – possibilities and opportunities K. Nebel INFOS 44 Calendar 45 Company index 45 Imprint Page 14 Page 20 – 21 5 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023 CONTENTS

NEWS OVERV I EW Page 6– 17 COMPANY: Lenzing Sales increase due to high fiber prices COMPANIES: Fairbrics/DITF Polyester fibers bind CO2 COMPANY: SGL Carbon Business activities at Gardena site sold COMPANY: IVL Name changes in BU Mobility INSTITUTE: nova-Institute Award for lyocell made from bacterial cellulose COMPANIES: Evonik /AMSilk Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins EVENT: Dornbirn GFC Paul Schlack Prize 2023 - Call for applications COMPANIES: Lanxess/Advent Competition authorities clear engineering materials JV ASSOCIATION: Composites Germany Optimistic expectations for composites market COMPANY: Ventile Wood-based barrier technology INSTITUTE: PolyU HK Non-contact gesture recognition illuminative textile COMPANY: Milliken Textile business eliminates PFAS from portfolio COMPANY: Archroma/Huntsman Textile Effects Acquisition forms Archroma Textile Effects INSTITUTE: DITF Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins COMPANY: Pfaff Industrial Purchase of land in Bensheim by Dürkopp Adler COMPANY: Dienes 110th anniversary and 4 generations of family history COMPANY: Lenzing FOCUS: Business In the 2022 financial year, the Lenzing Group, like most of the manufacturing industry in Europe, was increasingly affected by the extreme developments on the global energy and raw material markets. In the 3rd and 4th quarters (Q3 & Q4), the market environment deteriorated significantly, while worsening consumer sentiment placed an additional burden on the business growth of cellulose fiber manufacturer Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria. In 2022, sales increased by 16.9% to reach €2.57 billion, primarily as a result of higher fiber prices. The quantity of fiber sold decreased, while the quantity of pulp sold rose. In addition to lower demand, the earnings trend particularly reflects the increase in energy and raw material costs. Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) decreased by 33.3% to €241.9 million in 2022. The net result for the year was minus €37.2 million (compared with €127.7 million in the 2021). Sales increase due to high fiber prices Given the trend in earnings and the pronounced deterioration in market conditions, Lenzing launched a reorganization and cost reduction program in Q3/2022. Implementation of the program is proceeding according to plan and is expected to save at least €70 million in costs per year once fully implemented. At the same time, additional measures will be adopted to strengthen free cash flow, which stands at minus €740.7 million. This is mainly attributable to the investments in Brazil and Thailand. Thus, in addition to the cost reduction program, further steps will be taken in the months ahead to reduce working capital and reposition currency and energy price hedging. The temporary suspension of dividend payments is expected to boost free cash flow. As the lyocell plant in Thailand is now fully operational, Lenzing has the capacity to increase its share of specialty fibers substantially and is even better equipped to meet structurally rising demand for environmentally friendly Tencel and Veocel branded Next page 6 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Herzebrocker Straße 1 – 3 · D-33330 Gütersloh Tel. +49 (0)5241 879-0 · Visit us at the JEC World in Paris: Hall 5, Booth G55 Joint stand NRW/Germany! WE CONNECT THE WORLD. Today, polyester accounts for 60 % of all textiles produced worldwide and a third of the fashion industry’s greenhouse gas emission. By replacing fossil fuel sources by CO2-based sources, sustainable and scalable solution to energy intensive industries can be found. This is the starting point for the EU-wide collaborative project “Threading CO2”, which is funded under the EU's Horizon funding program. The project will bring products made of environmentally friendly polyester (PET) to market maturity. The technological basis has been developed by Fairbrics SAS, Paris/France. It involves the production of monoethylene glycol (MEG), the starting material for the manufacture of polyester, using CO2 extracted from industrial waste gases. This is a completely new approach, because in the classic process fossil raw materials are consumed for the production of PET. In this way, not only is the release of CO2 into the atmosphere directly prevented. The CO2 also contributes to increased added value by being incorporated into the production of high-quality textile products. The core of the project is the technological upscaling of the new MEG synthesis process in pilot plants, paving the way for industrial production. Polyester fibers bind CO2 COMPANIES: Fairbrics/DITF FOCUS: Innovation extracted from industrial waste gases CO2 Using lyocell fibers. With a nominal capacity of 100,000 tons/year, the new production plant is the largest of its kind worldwide. The requisite dissolving wood pulp will also be provided by the new plant in Brazil in future. Despite multiple challenges, especially relating to the pandemic, Lenzing realized both projects on time and within the planned budget and has successfully placed the volumes produced to date on the market. Under the leadership of Fairbrics, 17 project partners from 7 European countries are unified with the common goal of producing end products from PET in a closed cycle using industrial CO2 emissions and to bring them to market maturity. A total amount of €22 million has been raised, €17 million from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research & Innovation Program and €5 million from Partners to the Technology Upscaling Project. The German Institutes of Textile and Fiber Research (DITF), Denkendorf/Germany, will take on the task of accompanying the upscaling and taking the step 'from molecule to material': From the sustainably produced MEG, polyesters are synthesized in their own laboratories, spun into fibers, textured and further processed. The aim is to test whether the quality of the polyester and its spinnability and processability in the textile value chain are comparable with conventional PET. The project partners Faurecia SA, Nanterre/France, and Les Tissages de Charlieu Sarl, Charlieu/France, process the fibers and textiles into car seats and clothing so that the quality can also be assessed in the end product. The subsequent recyclability of the products will also be tested at the DITF. In addition, a security marking is to be developed for this CO2-based polyester to protect it from product piracy. In China and Indonesia, Lenzing is currently converting existing capacities for conventional viscose into those for environmentally friendly specialty fibers. In Nanjing, the company is about to complete the conversion of a production line to Tencel modal fibers. In Purwakarta, the company is creating additional capacities for Lenzing Ecovero branded fibers. The Indonesian site is set to become a pure specialty viscose provider in 2023. 7 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

As part of the realignment of SGL Carbon, strategic options were developed for all Business Units. In this context, the site network of the Business Unit (BU) Composite Solutions was also reviewed. The BU Composite Solutions offers customer-oriented and tailor-made solutions based on carbon and glass fibers for high-tech applications in the automotive, aerospace, energy and other industrial sectors. The review revealed that the site in Gardena, CA/USA, should no longer be embedded in the strategic alignment. Against this background, SGL Carbon SE, Wiesbaden/Germany, sold its business activities at the Gardena site to an affiliate of Tex-Tech Industries, Inc., Kernersville, NC/USA, effective February 16, 2023. This also includes all plant and machinery as well as customer contracts served from the Gardena site that will be fulfilled by the buyer in the future. The employees of the site were also taken over by the buyer. The property will remain in the possession of SGL Carbon and will be leased to the buyer for use. In the future, BU Composite Solutions will serve its North American business from its site in Arkadelphia, AR/USA, which is being expanded as a hub for the manufacturing of composite components, in particular for large-volume orders from North American automotive customers. Effective May 1, 2023, IVL is changing the names of its legal entities belonging to its Business Unit (BU) “Mobility Group”. Indorama Ventures Public Company Ltd. (IVL), Bangkok/Thailand, has grown by acquisitions. As a result of the current renaming process, the company would like to foster a more unified brand experience. The renaming process has already begun and is expected to be completed in May. Other than the company name and contacts' email addresses, there will be no changes as a result of this name change. The staff in production, purchasing, sales and administration will remain unchanged. The corporate name changes do not alter any current written contracts and agreements, and all obligations and responsibilities remain unaffected by the change of name, only the company name will change. As part of the BU “Mobility” PHP Fibers GmbH, Obernburg/Germany, will also be affected by this change. Business activities at Gardena site sold Name changes in BU Mobility COMPANY: SGL Carbon FOCUS: Business COMPANY: IVL FOCUS: Business Stefan König MANAGEMENT As of March 1, 2023, Hans Buehler, CEO of the Optima Group, will transfer responsibility for the business unit Optima Nonwovens to Dr. Stefan König, Managing Director of Optima packaging group GmbH, Schwäbisch Hall/Germany. Dr. König takes over the responsibility of all associated nonwovens units worldwide. Since March 2021, Koenig has been a member of the Optima management board and is responsible for the Consumer and Life Science business units as well as corporate sustainability. Before Koenig joined Optima, he had held senior management positions for over 20 years, including 4 years spent in Asia. In his last position, Koenig was CEO at a globally active company. Mark Snider MANAGEMENT The Association of the Nonwoven Fabrics Industry, INDA, Cary, NC/USA, has named Mark Snider to the position of Chief Market and Industry Analyst. Snider brings more than 30 years of nonwovens and engineered materials expertise with a strong background in market and industry analysis at both the macroeconomic, industry and segment level. Before starting his consulting company 16 years ago, he supported 3 divisions as Technical Marketing Manager for Nordson Corporation, Westlake, OH/USA, and as European and Latin American Regional Manager for J&M Labora- tories. 8 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

SEAMLESS SOLUTIONS > FILTRATION TEXTILES > COMPOSITE TEXTILES > INDUSTRIAL TEXTILES JEC PARIS 25. - 27.04.2023 Hall 5 | C69 HANNOVER MESSE 17. - 21.04.2023 Hall 3 | G20 Member of Textation Group Award for lyocell made from bacterial cellulose INSTITUTE: nova-Institute FOCUS: Innovations The bacteria-based cellulose fiber Nullarbor was awarded as the Cellulose Fibre Innovation of the Year 2023 at the Cellulose Fibres Conference 2023, which was held in Cologne/Germany, on March 8-9, 2023. The annual conference is organized by nova-Institute GmbH, Hürth/Germany, and is a meeting point for the global cellulose fiber industry. 42 international speakers from 12 countries presented current market insights and trends and demonstrated the innovation potential of cellulose fibers. More than 220 participants from 30 countries took advantage of on-site networking opportunities. Leading international experts presented new technologies for recycling cellulose-rich raw materials and innovative circular economy practices in textiles, packaging and hygiene, which were discussed with the help of active audience participation in 7 panel discussions. At the end of the first conference day, participants voted for the Cellulose Fibre Innovation of the Year Award: 1st place: Nullarbor – Nanollose and Birla Cellulose In 2020, Nanollose Ltd., Nedlands/Australia, and Birla Cellulose, Mumbai/India, started a journey to develop and commercialize tree-free lyocell from bacterial cellulose, called Nullarbor. The name derives from the Latin “nulla arbor” which means “no trees”. Initial lab research at both ends led to the joint patent application “production of high-tenacity lyocell fibers made from bacterial cellulose”. Nullarbor is significantly stronger than lyocell made from wood-based pulp; even adding small amounts of bacterial cellulose to wood pulp increases the fiber toughness. In 2022, the first pilot batch of 260 kg was produced with 20 % bacterial pulp share. Several high-quality fabrics and garments were produced with this fiber. The collaboration between Nanollose and Birla Cellulose now focuses on increasing the production scale and amount of bacterial pulp in the fiber. 2nd place: Circulose – makes fashion circular – Renewcell (SE) Circulose made by Renewcell AB, Stockholm/Sweden, is a branded dissolving pulp made from 100 % textile waste, like worn-out clothes and production scraps. It provides a unique material for fashion that is 100 % recycled, recyclable, biodegradable, and of virgin-equivalent quality. It is used by fiber producers to make staple fiber or filaments like viscose, lyocell, modal, acetate or other types of man-made cellulosic fibers. In 2022, Renewcell, opened the world’s first textileto-textile chemical recycling plant in Sundsvall/Sweden – Renewcell 1. The plant is expected to reach a capacity of 120,000 tons /year. 3rd place: Vybrana – The new generation banana fiber – Gencrest Bio Products (IN) Vybrana is a sustainable cellulosic fiber of Gencrest Bio Products Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai/India, upcycled from agrowaste. Raw fibers are extracted from the banana stem at the end of the plant lifecycle. The biomass waste is then treated by the Gencrest patented Fiberzyme technology. Here, cocktail enzyme formulations remove the high lignin content and other impurities and help fiber fibrillation. The company's proprietary cottonization process provides fine, spinnable cellulose staple fibers suitable for blending with other staple fibers and can be spun on any conventional spinning systems giving yarns sustainable apparel. Vybrana is produced without the use of heavy chemicals and minimized water consumption and in a waste-free process where balance biomass is converted to bio stimulants Agrosatva and bio-based fertilizers and organic manure. Nullarbor, Circulose = registered trademark 9 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Erhardt+Leimer GmbH · Albert-Leimer-Platz 1 · 86391 Stadtbergen · Germany · Phone: +49 (0)821 2435-0 · #STARTSMART WITH EL.NET Want to find out more? SCAN ME ELGUIDER Pivoting frame system  Wear-free, brushless drive technology  Connectable to EL.NET control systems via Ethernet  Simple service and diagnostics option using web-based management Materials produced with the silk proteins balance optimal performance with minimal environmental impact. Evonik has entered into an agreement with the German biotech company AMSilk to produce industrial quantities of innovative, sustainable silk proteins. The silk can be used in a broad range of applications including high-quality fashion, smart materials in automotives, and medical devices. Evonik Industries AG, Essen/Germany, is producing the silk at its contract development and manufacturing (CDMO) precision fermentation site in Slovakia. With more than 3 decades as a fermentation partner to companies working on advanced food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and other innovators, Evonik’s Health Care business plays a key role in the company’s life sciences division, Nutrition & Care. The division provides solutions that achieve high functionality while closing carbon loops and preserving biodiversity. With a total fermentation capacity of over 4,000 m³ spanning a network of global sites in the USA, Europe and Asia, Evonik is well-positioned to support a wide range of projects regardless of scale and complexity. AMSilk GmbH, Munich/Germany, turns man-made proteins into silk formulations including fiber, hydrogels and silk powder for applications in the textile industry as well as for medical devices and consumer goods. All AMSilk materials are created with an end of life in mind, being completely vegan, biodegradable, and using renewable plant-based carbon, with no microplastics. Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins COMPANIES: Evonik /AMSilk FOCUS: Collaboration 10 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

----INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEMS FOR AUTOMOTIVE PARTS AND MATERIALS Multi-stage ThermoPress and ScatterPro systems for composite products and materials for the automotive and transportation industry. • A world leader in double belt presses and precision scattering systems. • Modular design enables multiple stages in one continuous production line. • Processes include pressing, lamination, impregnation, cooling and scattering. • Efficient solutions for bodywork, panels, insulation and other interior/ exterior materials. • Sustainable solutions: stronger, lighter components to support industrial decarbonisation. Find our more at See us at ITMA, Milan 8-14 June · Hall H10 Stand B310 See us at JEC WORLD, Paris 25-27 April · Hall 6 · Stand D74 Man-made fibers research innovations at universities and research institutes are supported with the annual awarding of the Paul Schlack Prize as well as cooperation with the industry with the Honorary Prize. In 2023, the European Man-Made Fibres Association (CIRFS), Brussels/Belgium, will continue the tradition at the 62nd Dornbirn Global Fiber Congress (GFC) from September 13-15, 2023, in Dornbirn/ Austria highlighting R&D excellence at the plenary session. The main Paul Schlack Prize will be awarded with € 3,000 for an author of a theme from a university or research institute. The Honorary Prize will be presented for a project leader of a joint research project between a university/research institute and industry. The submission of proposals for the Paul Schlack Prize 2023 are invited with the deadline for applications of May 15, 2023. An international jury representing academic and industrial institutions will select the winner. All application documents should be preferably submitted in English, or in another European language, and should include a copy of the published work. An English summary must be provided in all cases. The winners will be announced at the Dornbirn GFC 2023 in September. The winner of the Paul Schlack prize will be asked to report on the results of their research by presenting a 5-minute summary (in English or German) at the opening of the congress. Paul Schlack Prize 2023– Call for applications EVENT: Dornbirn GFC FOCUS: Award M A Y 15 2023 In May 2022, Advent and Lanxess announced the envisaged establishment of an Advent controlled, high-performance engineering materials joint venture (JV) company with sales of around €3 billion, combining the DSM Engineering Materials business with Lanxess’ High Performance Materials business. Competition authorities have now granted merger clearance for the JV by Advent International Corp., Boston, MA/USA, and Lanxess AG, Cologne/Germany. Most approved the transaction during the course of last year and lately the EU Commission granted clearance on January 9, 2023. The transaction is expected to take place at the beginning of April 2023. Competition authorities clear engineering materials JV COMPANIES: Lanxess/Advent FOCUS: Business 11 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

The composites industry has also been affected by challenges such as the consequences of the corona pandemic, the shortage of semiconductors, problems in the logistics chains and a sharp rise in raw material prices. In addition, there have been other individual effects that have further increased the pressure on the industry. The main challenges during 2022 were primarily a steep increase in energy and fuel prices and the cost of logistics. In addition, the war in Ukraine put a further strain on supply chains that had already been weakened. These effects have further dampened the mood in the composites industry. The index assessing the current general business situation in Germany and Europe has dropped even lower than before. However, the assessment of the global situation is somewhat more positive. Despite this generally negative assessment of the current situation, companies are moving in a somewhat more positive direction in the assessment of their own business situations. The companies that were surveyed rated their own positions more positively than in the last survey. The expectations on future market developments are showing a very positive picture. After a significant drop in the last survey, the indicators for the general business situation are now displaying a clear upward trend again. The investment climate has remained at a stable level. Nearly half of the companies surveyed are planning to employ new staff over the next 6 months. As before, about 70% of respondents are either considering or planning machine investments. The composites market is highly heterogeneous in terms of both materials and applications. In the survey, respondents were asked to assess the market developments of different core areas. Expectations turned out to be extremely diverse (see Fig.). The most important application segment for composites is the transport sector. The number of new registrations of passenger cars has been declining in recent years. This is where OEMs can be seen to be moving away from volume models and opting for more profitable mid-range and premium segments. In this year’s survey, this shows itself in relatively cautious expectations for this segment. The currently rather pessimistic outlook for the construction industry is leading companies to expect major slumps in this sector. The building sector, in particular, often reacts rather slowly to short-term economic fluctuations and has long been relatively robust towards the aforementioned crises. Now, however, it seems that this area, too, is being affected by negative influences. Optimistic expectations for composites market ASSOCIATION: Composites Germany FOCUS: Business Assessment of the development of selected areas of application, Source: Composites Germany A = Autoclave B = Hand-Lay / Spray-Up C = Pultrusion D = RTM E = SMC/BMC F = Thermoplast-Moulding G = Combined processes with IM 0% A B C D E F G 20% deteriorate Stay the same improve 40% 60% 80% 100% The pessimistic outlook on the sports and leisure sector can be explained by a rather pessimistic view of consumer behavior. Expectations about future market developments, on the other hand, are significantly more positive than the figures presented here might suggest. Outlook Despite the many negative influences that have occurred recently, composites appear to be in good shape for the future. Thanks to excellent market developments in 2021, they have almost reached their pre-pandemic level. The outlook for market developments in 2022 have not been finalized but are showing a less positive trend for last year. Nevertheless, there are many indications to suggest that the generally positive development of the composite industry over the last few years is set to continue. In the medium term, structural changes in the transport sector will open up opportunities for composites to gain a new foothold in new applications. Major opportunities can be seen in areas of construction and infrastructure. Despite the rather weak market situation, these areas offer enormous opportunities for composites, due to their unique properties which predestine them for long-term use. The main assets of these materials are their durability, their almost maintenance-free use, their potential for use in lightweight construction and their positive impact on sustainability. Furthermore, one major growth driver is likely to be the wind industry, provided that it meets the politically self-imposed targets for the share of renewable energies in power consumption. For the 20th time, the trade association Composites Germany e.V., Berlin/Germany, has identified the latest performance indicators for the fiber-reinforced plastics market. The survey covered all the member companies of the 3 major umbrella organizations of Composites Germany: Industrievereinigung Verstärkte Kunststoffe e.V. (AVK), Frankfurt/Germany, Leichtbau Baden-Württemberg GmbH, Stuttgart/Germany, and the VDMA Working Group on Hybrid Lightweight Construction Technologies, Frankfurt. 22% 33% 8% 6% 9% 3% 5% 71% 60% 36% 72% 59% 39% 38% 8% 7% 56% 22% 32% 58% 57% 12 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Superior wire cloth for superior nonwovens SIEBFABRIK Arthur Maurer GmbH & Co. KG As one of the industry’s leading wire cloth and belt manufacturers we offer our customers maximum precision as well as a worldwide installation service. NordShield’s nature-based antimicrobial treatment to a natural material such as Ventile is a good example of product performance development that works just like nature, improving gradually and adapting to circumstances and conditions. As part of its ongoing sustainability initiative Ventile Fabrics, Stotz & Co. AG, Zurich/Switzerland, is cooperating with nature-based performance fiber technology supplier NordShield, Espoo/Finland. The NordShield technology creates an ultra-thin, molecular-­ sized barrier on the surface of fibers, which physically inhibits microorganisms. The first-of-its-kind technology forms a durable physical layer and acts as a shield, denying these microbes a suitable place to grow or survive and ultimately enhancing the longevity of an item. The barrier, which is applied after dyeing, part-way through the fabric’s production, does not affect the texture or color of the finished garment. With NordShield, Ventile can be made into even more long- lasting garments, that both protect the wearer from germs as well as keep fresh for a longer time, thereby reducing the need for washing. Wood-based barrier technology COMPANY: Ventile FOCUS: Innovation Since March 2023, Ventile customers have the opportunity to order fabrics that have been treated with the innovative woodbased technology from NordShield, which is biodegradable, sustainably produced, and free of heavy metals, borax, parabens, and quaternary ammonium compounds (QUATs). In 2021, Ventile announced its move to a PFC-free company in response to the growing demand for sustainable practices in the textile trade. The Ventile range consists of fabrics that offer increased sustainable credentials such as recycled cotton, organic cotton, and a choice of blended fabrics such as hemp, lyocell, and linen. Ventile fabric is designed to be waterproof, water-repellent, windproof and breathable. 13 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Effective January 1, 2023, Milliken no longer treats textiles with PFAS chemistry. This achievement follows the company’s recent announcement that its science-based net-zero targets were approved by the UN-backed Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). The Textile Business Unit (BU) of Milliken has successfully eliminated all per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) from its textile fibers and finishes portfolio, becoming the first US-based multi-market textile manufacturer to remove PFAS. The company announced an aggressive plan in February 2022 to eliminate PFAS as an ingredient in its textile portfolio by the end of the year. As of December 31, 2022, the Textile BU at Milliken & Company, Spartanburg, SC/USA, had removed PFAS-based finishes and fibers, which spans multiple industries including flame-resistant, military, uniform and decor fabrics. Textile business eliminates PFAS from portfolio COMPANY: Milliken FOCUS: Innovation Innovative technology has transformed conventionally passive textiles into an intuitive and interactive platform that enables immediate color illumination customization. Developed by researchers at the AiDLab (Laboratory for Artificial Intelligence in Design), of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon/ Hong Kong, the patented intelligent textile system is a contactfree gesture recognition illuminative textile that changes color through hand and body gestures. The novel textile possesses 2 unique features: An offline system based on a self-built algorithm, and a patented illuminative Polymeric Optical Fiber (POF) knitted textile. The former enables contactless engagement, and the latter serves as a fabric platform for different color illuminations. It seamlessly integrates technology with the soft tactility of knitted materials. The textile can be knitted in a wide variety of surface patterns, textures, and weight. It looks and feels like a typical textile which will not look obtrusive in everyday environments and can be applied for wearables and products. It can be produced using industrial flatbed knitting machines thus enabling the textiles to be produced on a mass scale. The system is based on computer vision and deep learning that is facilitated by an integrated camera. It captures imagery of the hands to compute and decipher it through 21 key landmarks on the hands and provide response in the form of illumination according to the predefined gestures. The system is trained to detect and calculate distances between landmarks on the hands, Non-contact gesture recognition illuminative textile INSTITUTE: PolyU HK FOCUS: Innovation it recognizes gestures with immediate feedback using colored illuminations, providing effortless and intuitive interactions. The off-line system also enables the intelligent textile to work any- where without the need for large computational power hence reducing the bulk of components and enhancing portability. Typical gesture recognition materials are often reliant on physical contact or the donning of the material. Usually, the illuminative textiles are woven materials that have fixed structures while the knitted textile possess stretch. The new system is customizable in terms of the programmed gestures and different surface design, textures, and weights can be created to accommodate to the application purpose. The immediate adaptability of the intelligent textile enables it to effortlessly meet the fast-evolving needs of contemporary consumers lending to product longevity and sustainability. The ability to customize interaction and colors within multi-user contexts will reduce the need to purchase copious products to meet different needs. The knitting process enables the creation of shaped pieces to fit the product construction thus only using the yarn and POFs required, resulting in very little material wastage as compared to the conventional cut and sew process of woven textiles that lends to material wastage. The intelligent textile system had been licensed to the Hong Kong Sheng Kung Hui Welfare Council for installation at the Wong Tai Sin District Health Centre that serves over 400,000 residents in the area. The Textile BU began evaluating its portfolio in 2020 and segmented its evaluation efforts between 3 areas of focus: durable water repellency (DWR), soil release and oil repellency. Alternative DWR solutions were readily available in the market through accredited organizations such as bluesign. The Milliken research team assessed and implemented appropriate alternatives to maintain the performance and quality standards customers expect for DWR. Soil repellency proved to be both a challenge and an opportunity. A new soil release technology was developed and integrated into suitable textile applications without PFAS as an ingredient. The new technology, proprietary to Milliken, has shown equivalent and, in some cases, superior performance to previous PFAS-containing finishes. Currently, the new technology is not an alternative to every soil-repellent finish application. After an extensive search and vetting process for alternative oil repellency, no alternative was found, and the company exited those lines of business as a result. bluesign = registered trademark 14 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Archroma announced the closing of the acquisition of the Textile Effects business from Huntsman Corp., The Woodlands, TX/USA, on February 28, 2023. When the Huntsman Textile Effects acquisition was first disclosed in August 2022, Archroma Group Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Heike van de Kerkhof called the transaction a “merger of equals”. Indeed, the global business of Huntsman Textile Effects comprises approx. 2,300 employees in 33 countries and 10 production sites globally which, when combined with Archroma, means the company will have more than 5,000 employees in total, in 42 countries and 35 production sites. The companies’ combined product portfolios will be highly complementary. Archroma Management GmbH, Pratteln/Switzerland, a portfolio company of private investment firm SK Capital Partners, LP, New York, NY/USA, is a leader in sustainable specialty chemicals and solutions for industries such as textiles, packaging & paper, paints and coatings. Since its formation in 2013, the company has been building a comprehensive portfolio of solutions to serve the apparel, textiles, packaging, paper, coatings, adhesives and sealants markets. Acquisition forms Archroma Textile Effects COMPANIES: Archroma/Huntsman Textile Effects FOCUS: Business L-to-R: Thomas Bucher, Heike van de Kerkhof, Sameer Singla, Rohit Aggarwal New divisions with new names In addition to the closing of the Textile Effects acquisition, Archroma announced that it has updated its overall business into 2 operating divisions for growth, each focused on a separate end market. The Textile Effects business acquired from Huntsman will be integrated with the Brand & Performance Textile Specialties business of Archroma into one new division named Archroma Textile Effects. The new division will be led by Rohit Aggarwal, former President of Huntsman Textile Effects, who is appointed as Divisional President & CEO of the Archroma Textile Effects division, as well as President Asia. The Packaging & Paper Specialties and Coatings, Adhesives & Sealants businesses of Archroma have been recently combined into one new division named Archroma Paper, Packaging & Coatings, under the leadership of Sameer Singla, Divisional President and CEO of the Archroma Paper, Packaging & Coatings division, as well as President Americas and EMEA (Europe, Middle East and Africa). 15 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Janne Silonsaari MANAGEMENT Suominen has appointed Janne Silonsaari as the Chief Financial Officer (CFO) and a member of the Executive Team. He joins Suominen Corp., Helsinki / Finland, effective June 2023, and brings experience from various business controlling and leadership roles. Sirpa Koskinen, VP, Group Controlling will act as an interim CFO until Silonsaari takes up his position. Suominen manufactures nonwovens as roll goods for wipes and other applications. The company’s net sales in 2022 were €493.3 million and with over 700 employees working in Europe and in the Americas. Francis Murphy MANAGEMENT Invista has announced the appointment of Francis Murphy as president and CEO. Murphy, who joined Invista S.à.r.l., Wichita, KS / USA, as part of the company’s acquisition of the Flint Hills Resources, LLC (FHR), Wichita, propylene business in 2022, brings 30 years of leadership at FHR, a Koch company and affiliate of Invista. InhistimeatFHR,Murphyhadvarious leadership responsibilities within its olefins, aromatics, polymer, base oil and light products businesses. Murphy leads the company following the retirement of Jeff Gentry after nearly 40 years with Invista and Koch companies. A novel, both environmentally friendly and cost-saving process for the production of carbon fibers from lignin has been developed at the DITF. It is characterized by high energy-saving potential. The avoidance of solvents and the use of natural raw materials make the process environmentally friendly. Carbon fibers are usually produced on an industrial scale from polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The stabilization and carbonization of the fibers takes place with long dwell times in high-temperature furnaces. This costs a lot of energy and makes the fibers expensive. In addition, toxic by-products are produced that have to be separated from the manufacturing process in a costly and energy-intensive process. A novel process developed at the German Institutes for Textile and Fiber Research Denkendorf (DITF) in Denkendorf/Germany, enables high energy savings in all these process steps. Lignin replaces PAN for the production of precursor fibers, which are converted into carbon fibers in a second process step. Lignin as a starting material for the production of carbon fibers has so far received little attention in industrial production. It is an inexpensive raw material that is available in large quantities and is a waste product in paper production. The new process for producing lignin fibers is based on an aqueous solution of lignin. For this purpose, wood is separated into its components, lignin and cellulose. A sulfite digestion process enables the production of lignosulfonate, which is dissolved in water. The spinning process itself is carried out in the so-called dry spinning process. In this process, an extruder presses the spinning mass through a nozzle into a heated spinning shaft. The resulting continuous fibers dry quickly and uniformly in the spinning shaft. This is a completely new and environmentally friendly approach because the process does not require the use of solvents or toxic additives. The following steps for the production of carbon fibers, namely stabilization in hot air and subsequent carbonization in the high-temperature furnace, are similar to those of the usual process when PAN is used as a precursor fiber. However, lignin fibers also show their advantages here, because they can be stabilized particularly quickly in the oven with hot air and only require relatively low temperatures in carbonization. The energy savings in these process steps compared with PAN are around 50% and represent a real competitive advantage. The dry spinning process allows high spinning speeds. As a result, much more material is produced in a shorter time than is possible with PAN fibers. The lignin precursor fibers are extremely homogeneous, have smooth surfaces and no adhesions. Such structural features facilitate further processing into carbon fibers and ultimately also into fiber composites. Carbon fibers made from water-spun lignin fibers are likely to be of particular interest for applications in the construction and automotive sectors, which benefit greatly from cost reductions in the production process. Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins INSTITUTE: DITF FOCUS: Innovation 16 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

Purchase of land in Bensheim by Dürkopp Adler On February 28, 2023, the shareholder of Pfaff Industrial, Dürkopp Adler GmbH, purchased the optional ground in Stubenwald II in Bensheim/Germany in the presence of the Chinese shareholder of ShangGong Group, Mr. Zhang Min. Thus, the company premises of Pfaff Industrial at the Bensheim location will be extended from 16,000 to a total of 30,000 m². It is to be built on with an extension building and represents a clear commitment to the Bensheim site. Here, automated sewing solutions for the automotive, environmental and filter technology sectors, as well as for the aviation and home textiles are primarily developed and manufactured. Pfaff Industriesysteme und Maschinen GmbH, Kaiserslautern/Germany, and Dürkopp Adler GmbH, Bielefeld/Germany, are members of the ShangGong Group, Shanghai/China, a leading group for industrial sewing and welding technology with an international sales and service network and a total of 4,000 employees worldwide. In February 2023, Dienes Werke celebrated its 110th anniversary. Founded in Remscheid/ Germany, the company moved to its current location after WW1. Dienes Werke für Maschinenteile GmbH & Co. KG, Overath/Germany, has always diversified its product range so that, in addition to circular knives, it offers knife holders, multiple knife blocks, complete slitting systems and a wide range of services. Digital services from the TEOC (The End Of Coincidences) product family complete the portfolio in the field of hardware and software with the aim of providing customers with data-based optimization. As a second pillar, the company is also active in valve technology for industrial applications in compressors, pumps and compressors. In addition to the company anniversary, Dienes Werke is pleased to welcome Julian Supe-Dienes as an additional family member to the management team as of March 2023. Currently, Rudolf Supe-Dienes, who originally managed the company with his brother Bernd in the 3rd generation, is the sole managing director. With Julian Supe-Dienes, the 4th generation is now also represented in the management. After studying industrial engineering in Aachen/Germany, Julian Supe-Dienes was able to gain professional experience in leading international companies before joining the family business as sales manager in September 2021. With Maja Supe-Dienes, another member of the founding family has joined the company as of March 1, 2023. As project manager in the area of company develop- ment and optimization, she will develop and implement new business strategies in close cooperation with the management in order to continue to position the company for the future. After completing her Master's degree in Management at the ESMT in Berlin/Germany, she completed a traineeship at Dienes and subsequently worked for a leading management consultancy. 110th anniversary and 4 generations of family history COMPANY: Pfaff Industrial FOCUS: Anniversary COMPANY: Dienes FOCUS: Investment 17 NEWS TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023

F I BERS & YARNS Eco-friendly and sustainable fibers for Sporttech Sporttech is one of the fastest growing sectors of technical textiles and includes 3 categories, i.e. sportswear, sport goods and sport accessories. All 3 categories make a significant contribution for effective and performance sports activity. There is a variety of eco-friendly and sustainable fibers which are being used for sport textiles. Fibers such as organic cotton, wool, bamboo, hemp, recycled synthetic fibers, plant-based polyester (PET), regenerated cellulose fibers, regenerated protein fibers, sea weeds, coir, jute etc. are being discussed in relation to their application in Sporttech. This paper discusses the application for eco-friendly textiles for sportswear. Mayur Basuk, Ravindra V. Adivarekar Wool Research Association – Centre of Excellence for Sportech, Thane / India Department of Fibers and Textile Processing Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Mumbai / India Consumers nowadays are becoming more aware about the sustainability issue and environmental footprint and are interested to know under what conditions their textiles weremanufactured. To develop sustainable sportswear, equal importance should be given to performance characteristics of the fabric and their sustainability. The fabrics should provide desired functionality with the least harm to the environment 1. The performance of active wear is closely related to the material used. Recent developments in textile materials have resulted in many innovative types of textile fibers, yarns, and fabrics. During the material development process, the manufacturers are also mindful of environmental sustainability issues. Therefore, product developers are inspired to produce innovative textile products that have exceptional performance and are weatherproof and eco-friendly 2. Sustainable fibers in sport textiles ORGANIC COTTON For sport textiles, cotton is most preferred for apparel, in blend or pure, among all natural fibers. The research finding shows that 25 % of all toxic pesticides used in agriculture was (and is) used in cultivation of cotton which results in further pollution and damage to bodies of water, soil etc. Organic cotton is grown using methods and materials that have a low impact on the environment. Organic production systems replenish and maintain soil fertility, reduce the use of toxic and persistent pesticides and fertilizers, and build biologically diverse agriculture 3. For lowintensity sports like yoga, golf etc., it is better to use fabric made of organic cotton rather than to choose a synthetic fiber 4. WOOL Wool can be used as special clothing to enhance protection, comfort and performance. It offers protection against over warming or cooling, owing to high water vapor permeability i.e. carrying off perspiration 5. Wool has good, natural wicking property and it will also provide insulation even in wet condition. However, it is slow to dry.Wool fiber has a unique natural thermal regulation and vaporous management properties which helps in cooling down and controls body temperature 6. The Australian Wool Innovation (AWI), Sydney / Australia, and the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization (CSIRO), Canberra /Australia, are putting lots of efforts for incorporating merino wool into sports textiles and exploring new technical applications of wool fiber 7. The very good moisture wicking and comfort properties make the wool fiber suitable for the sportswear. Sportwool is a unique fabric engineered by CSIRO for use in active sportswear that is more comfortable 8. HEMP FIBER Hemp is a bast fiber obtained from the plant cannabis sativa. The fiber conducts heat, dyes well, resists mildew, blocks ultraviolet light and has inherent anti-bacterial properties. The fiber is coarse-like coir and mainly used for table and floor products 9. It has not become the choice of conventional manufacturers of sport textiles. Hemp fiber may be used to produce sport textile and have huge potential for application in items like sport t-shirt, towels, sport mats etc. BAMBOO FIBER Bamboo is a sustainable resource hence it must be put to substantial use Bamboo fiber is a regenerated cellulosic fiber produced from bamboo. It is softer than cotton, with a texture similar to a blend of cashmere and silk. Bamboo knit fabrics have tremendous scope for being used for sportswear designing and product development with positive features of good strength and water absorbency, elasticity, comfort properties and softness. Knitted fabric made from bamboo has tremendous potential of being used as a sustainable resource in the development of products with a futuristic approach 10. 18 TECHNICAL TEXTILES 2 | 2023 FIBERS & YARNS