Man-Made Fibers International 1/2023

BEYOND THE HORIZON PROCESS SOLUTIONS FOR POLYMER RECYCLING AND SOLID STATE POLYMER UPGRADING Polymetrix, a Sanlian Buhler Company, provides process technology including EPCM services for the polymer recycling and manufacturing industry. Leading supplier of rPET systems and intergated rPET plants for single line capacities up to 70’000 tons per year. D 2 0 4 7 E ISSUE 1 20 23 ENGL ISH IN THIS ISSUE Biobased / biodegradable topics Avantium/Origin Lanxess/Advent Carbios/Novozymes Senbis/FET Avgol List Recycling topics Andritz/Renewcell Asahi Kasei BB Engineering Carbios/PVH Gneuss/KTDI Haelixa/Damteks List Teijin/RePEaT Toray Trevira Synthetic fiber market outlook ITMA 2023 – An industry in transition POLYMERS, FIBERS, FIBER PRODUCTION, NONWOVENS VISIT US AT: TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET Enabling Cellulosic Fiber Innovations for Tomorrow The cellulosic fiber market will diversify and remain very dynamic. Lyocell‘s potential has not fully been reached yet - and this provides great opportunities for innovators: Pioneering fibers from 100% agro-waste, trendy fibers from 100% bacterial cellulose, high-tenacity fibers from 100% recycled cotton textiles, lowcost fibers from paper pulp, world scale fiber capacities from integrated pulp-fiber plants, fiber tenacities like polyester fibers, fully closed loops with textiles from 100% recycled textiles, etc. - Lyocell will drivemany innovations required to survive in the fiber market of tomorrow. paring you et Are you ready for Lyocell 2.0? LIST provides the Proven Dissolving Technology Platform for any kind of fiber innovation: ▪ all cellulose sources ▪ all cellulose concentrations ▪ all water concentrations ▪ all solvents ▪ all process regimes ▪ all scales - lab to industrial LIST Technology - preparing you for the future dynamics of the cellulosic fiber market.e –

Ernesto Maurer President CEMATEX Brussels/Belgium An industry in transition Ahead of this year’s ITMA inMilan/Italy, the painful spike in energy costs in 2022 which will continue well into 2023 has intensified the ubiquitous focus on energy savings by textile technology developers – from the production of fibers through to garment making-up. Dyeing and finishing The most energy-consuming areas in the textile manufacturing chain, can be found in dyeing and finishing, involving many stages of washing and drying that also consume considerable amounts of water and chemicals. Textile machinery builders have already made great progress here – the development of dyeing machines in terms of design and control technology has led to a substantial reduction in water consumption over the past few decades. On average, the finishing stages of pre-treatment, dyeing and after-treatment required about 100 l of water per kg of cotton in 1980. Today, the best-available technologies achieve on average 28 l/kg on medium shades – a 72% improvement. The reduction of water, of course, relates directly to savings in energy as well as reduction of waste. Dual heating At the ITMA 2023, however, visitors will discover that much more can be achieved, with machine builders now supplying dual heating systems such as combinations of gas and steam or gas and oil in order to become less dependent on gas, for example. Steam and thermal oil are also being heated with carbon-neutral biomass and the systems for recycling waste heat from drying processes are proving more invaluable than ever. Many new examples of minimum application technologies for both the dyeing and finishing of textiles involving fully digitalized precision spray technologies will also be on show in Milan, making further huge savings possible. Digitalization It will also be very apparent at the ITMA exhibition that the time for the further digitalization of the fiber spinning industry – as the route to establishing greater efficiencies in all resource inputs – is now. A lot of things have changed very quickly as a result of the establishment of global networks and centralized processing and storage. Combine these with the huge progress that is being made in respect of sensor identification technology, data analytics, mobile and wireless communication and machine learning and we would be looking at significant disruption. All these developments address resource efficiency as well as problems such as low margins and the lack of skilled labor that have been seen in the textile sector. Regional differences PricewaterhouseCoopers presented a study based on more than 2,000 participating companies from 9 sectors of industry in 26 countries, including textile manufacturers. Therein they emphasized that digitalization is not just engaging companies in already fully-industrialized countries, but also in developing ones, with emerging economies having somewhat different aims. In Europe, for example, the main goal is to expand operational efficiency and product quality. China and other Asian countries are meanwhile seeking to benefit from automating and digitalizing their labor-intensive manufacturing processes. As far as the commoditized textile industry is concerned, digitalization is also rapidly enabling systems for the customized ordering of apparel online, along with delivery with very short lead times. Thus, being a form of manufacturing becoming increasingly profitable for manufacturers, as production and logistics processes are extensively automated. Reshoring and circularity A further noticeable shift now being driven by digitalization is to so-called ‘reshoring’. After Covid-19-related closed borders, reduced production capacity and general global uncertainty, many companies started to question the norm of outsourcing production, involving complex and fragile supply chains. Bringing production closer to home has never before been as feasible as it is today, due to the increased automation and robotization of many production processes. This will be very evident at the ITMA 2023. So too, will be a growing emphasis on circular supply chains and new technologies to rapidly advance the apparel recycling industry. Here, the emphasis is now on chemical recycling routes and full materials recovery, along with digitalized separation and sorting. It is anticipated, for example, that between 150 and 250 new textile recycling centers will be established within Europe in the next 5 years, in response to the European Green Deal. The European Union’s plans to make Europe the first climate-neutral continent will also have a major impact on chemical usage in the textile industry. The ITMA 2023 will provide a window into this fast-moving world. Come June, the more than 1,600 exhibitors from 44 countries are all set to showcase their innovative offerings at the first large-scale textile machinery exhibition post-pandemic. Held alongside the exhibition will be the ITMA Textile Colourants and Chemicals Forum and the ITMA Nonwovens Forum. 3 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 LEADER

CONTENTS LEADER 3 An industry in transition E. Maurer NEWS 6 – 24 DETAI LS SEE PAGE 6 RAW MATERIALS 26 Recycling of PA 6 to ε -caprolactam Northwestern University, NREL FIBERS 27 Cattail fiber and its potential applications T. Karthik FIBER PRODUCTION 29 P redicting coating properties from simple extraction methods O. Deußen, L. Zibula 30 S ignificant increase in shipments of draw-texturing machinery ITMF ! Page 29 Page 38 – 41 I S SUE 1 | 2023 | VOLUME 73 FIBER INDUSTRY 32 Lyocell 2.0 M. Steiner 36 R educing water consumption in the PET staple fiber industry with new spin finish oil Y. Takayama 38 Ending fibrous polyester waste inline fiber-to-fiber recycling of PET waste ITMF 41 Partnership for mass production of plant-based polymers Avantium/Origin Materials 42 Automation is key to success of man-made fiber manufacturing S. Gulhane, M. Gulhane 45 Metallization of polyimide materials for usage in aerospace T. Onggar, T. Tüfek et al. 48 P olyamide dissolution and recovery from fiber blends for recycling A.P. Manian, T. Bechtold, T. Pham 4 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 CONTENTS

NONWOVENS 51 Shortlist of Index23 Awards nominees 52 Hybrid nonwovens-based composite made of banana fiber and biodegradable polyester M. Sodagar et al. 54 Influence of gradient structure on functional characteristics of PET nonwovens G.K. Tyagi, S.G. Jotheswaran, R. Roy MANAGEMENT 10 Urs Meier 12 Thomas Oetterli, Norbert Klapper 12 Philipp Ebbinghaus, Wolfgang Höflich, Christian Heinrich Sandler, Ulrich Hornfeck, Stephan Hopster 16 Christoph Riemer, Dietmar Clausen, Felix Grimm, Wolfgang Nowak, Martin Haberl 16 Simon Whitmarsh-Knight 18 Thomas Bernard, Thomas Herrmann, Carsten O’Beirne 20 Stefan König, Hans Buehler 20 Mark Snider 22 Francis Murphy, Toni Tamminen 22 Matthias Holzammer, Eelco Spoelder 41 Rüdiger Werner OUTLOOK 58 Synthetic fiber market outlook for 2023 Tecnon OrbiChem Page 48 – 50 WWW.TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET INFO 57 Company index 57 Imprint 5 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 CONTENTS

NEWS OVERV I EW COMPANY: FET Record orders for 2023 COMPANY: Oerlikon More orders and sales again in 2022 EVENT: Index23 Navigating challenges in the nonwovens industry COMPANIES: Haelixa /Damteks Traceable recycled acrylic fiber COMPANIES: Senbis / FET Pilot plant for filament yarns in operation COMPANY: Oerlikon Service offering in USA expanded COMPANY: Saint-Gobain Adfors New coated veil line in Poland COMPANY: Gessner Combination of filtration experts from Neenah and SWM COMPANY: Asahi Kasei /Mitsui Chemicals New JV to combine spunbond nonwovens COMPANY: Suominen Sales growth but less profit COMPANY: Avgol Bio-based colorants with algae-powered technology Page 6–24 MARKET RESEARCH: Tecnon OrbiChem Less PA fiber production in Europe in 2022 COMPANIES: Evonik /AMSilk Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins COMPANY: Renewcell Year-end report 2022 sees new plant begin production COMPANY: Trevira On the way to a circular economy COMPANY: Spinnova Woodspin plant completed in 2022 COMPANIES: Lenzing / Renewcell From linear to circular business model COMPANIES: Lanxess / Advent Competition authorities clear engineering materials JV COMPANIES: Lanxess / Advent Polyester fibers bind CO2 COMPANY: TFJ Soft flameresistant fiber COMPANY: SGL Carbon Business activities at Gardena site sold INSTITUTE: Tohoku University Non-invasive health monitoring with microelectronic fibers COMPANY: Fibertex Corp. Acquisition by Stein Fibers COMPANY: The Lycra Company Warm feet due to hollow fiber solution in socks EVENT: Dornbirn GFC Paul Schlack Prize 2023 – Call for applications COMPANY: Carbios Fiber-to-fiber consortium welcomes PVH Corp. COMPANIES: Teijin / RePEaT PET chemical recycling technology licensed to Chinese company COMPANY: Toray Recycled PA 66 recovered from silicone-coated airbags COMPANY: Asahi Kasei Closed-loop recycling system for carbon fiber COMPANIES: Andritz / Renewcell New fibers from waste textiles COMPANY: Gneuss Extrusion line for PET recycling for KTDI COMPANIES: Carbios /Novozymes Partnership in bio-recycling of PET WWW.TEXTILETECHNOLOGY.NET 6 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Your trade media in a new look Dear Readers, Right now, you are holding our first issue of Man-Made Fibers International in the new layout in your hands. We continue to follow and constantly adapt to the trends and markets in the textile industry – hence the change to a fresher, modern appearance now and to a new name. In order to satisfy all areas/topics and trends, we will also continue to retain the independent specialist titles. However, from now on Chemical Fibers International will become Man-Made Fibers International, so that we can also do justice to the trend towards recycled and bio-based fibers. The established competent reporting from and about the complete textile supply chain from fiber raw materials to fiber production, fibers, yarns, yarn production, fabric production, textile finishing, and the extensive area of technical textiles and nonwovens remains. Our editorial, sales and marketing teams are also unchanged. The trade media Man-Made Fibers International (MMFI), Technical Textiles / Technische Textilien (TT), Melliand International / Melliand Textilberichte (MI/MTB) and NonwovensTrends (NWT) are published under our TextileTechnology umbrella brand. In addition, there is the joint online presence with 4 free newsletters/week. We would be very happy for you to send us your opinions, comments, and feedback on our new but also tried and tested media world – simply by e-mail to Claudia van Bonn Editor-in-Chief, TextileTechnology TAKE A LOOK! PA fiber markets came under pressure from sluggish demand and surging feedstock costs during 2022. Record-high energy prices impacted production economics for PA 6 and PA 66 fiber in all regions, particularly during the 3rd quarter (Q3) of 2022. European producers took the brunt of the energy cost increase and reduced operations in the 2nd half (H2) of 2022. Meanwhile, China’s limited consumer spending and stunted overall economic growth due to zero-Covid measures reduced polyamide fiber demand. The PA fiber sector in the USA was more resilient for most of the year, but higher interest rates dampened consumer sentiment in Q4/2022. PA fiber prices increased in all regions during Q2/ Q3, primarily supported by sharply higher feedstock values. Chinese market prices started slipping lower during Q3 in reaction to weaker demand. Also, a weak automotive market weighed heavily on PA tire cord materials markets in Asia. PA fiber prices in Europe and the USA remained elevated in late 2022, but decreases are expected to take hold in H1/2023 due to poor Less PA fiber production in Europe in 2022 MARKET RESEARCH: Tecnon OrbiChem FOCUS: Business demand and softer feedstock prices. There is not much optimism for PA fiber markets during Q1/2023 due to lingering economic stresses caused by lockdowns in China. Demand has not improved there to any great extent, and with supply remaining at high levels, there is not much room for prices to increase. Any potential changes will be associated with raw materials costs, which will not rise substantially for the foreseeable future amid more than sufficient supply. A new report from Tecnon OrbiChem, London/UK, looks at the outlook for the synthetic fiber market for 2023 and reviews 2022. Further information on the other synthetic fibers can be found on page 58. Production Capacity to Produce Capacity Utilization % 8,400 7,200 6,000 4,800 3,600 88% 80% 72% 64% 56% 2015 2020 2025 Polyamide Fibre Capacity vs. Production Volume (kt) Utilization % 7 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Materials produced with the silk proteins balance optimal performance with minimal environmental impact. Evonik has entered into an agreement with the German biotech company AMSilk to produce industrial quantities of innovative, sustainable silk proteins. The silk can be used in a broad range of applications including highquality fashion, smart materials in automotives, and medical devices. Evonik Industries AG, Essen/Germany, is producing the silk at its contract development and manufacturing (CDMO) precision fermentation site in Slovakia. With more than 3 decades as a fermentation partner to companies working on advanced food ingredients, pharmaceuticals and other innovators, Evonik’s Health Care business plays a key role in the company’s life sciences division, Nutrition & Care. The division provides solutions that achieve high functionality while closing carbon loops and preserving biodiversity. With a total fermentation capacity of over 4,000 m³ spanning a network of global sites in the USA, Europe and Asia, Evonik is well-positioned to support a wide range of projects regardless of scale and complexity. AMSilk GmbH, Munich/Germany, turns man-made proteins into silk formulations including fiber, hydrogels and silk powder for applications in the textile industry as well as for medical devices and consumer goods. All AMSilk materials are created with an end of life in mind, being completely vegan, biodegradable, and using renewable plant-based carbon, with no microplastics. In October 2022, the "Commercial Operations Date" was achieved at the Renewcell 1 production plant of Renewcell AB, Stockholm/Sweden, a defined date in the company's loan agree- ments that relates to the point in time when the production line achieves functionality for commercial production. During the month of December 2022, Renewcell 1 produced approx. 650 tons of dissolving pulp. During the period January-December 2022, net sales amounted to approx. SEK 12.6 million (approx. €1.13 million). Sales during 2022 consisted mainly of sales of Circulose pulp to fiber producers, which amounted to a total of approx. 801 tons. In December, the first delivery of Circulose dissolving pulp produced at Renewcell 1 in Sundsvall/Sweden took place to a customer. Operating profit before depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) amounted to SEK -252 million (€-22.6 million). In 2021 EBITDA was SEK -120.6 million. The change is mainly explained by the fact that the company continues to build up its operations in connection with the establishment of Renewcell 1. Profit for the period was also affected by other income primarily relating to exchange rate gains but also to the sale of scrap metal arising from the demolition work of Renewcell 1 and other operating expenses for the period, which amounted to SEK -3.5 million and relate to exchange losses. Partnership to manufacture sustainable silk proteins Year-end report 2022 sees new plant begin production COMPANY: Renewcell FOCUS: Business COMPANIES: Evonik /AMSilk FOCUS: Collaboration In November 2022, Renewcell and the Eastman Chemical Co., Kingsport, TN/USA, signed a letter of intent for development of yarn from recycled textiles. A large-scale and multi-year supply agreement was signed with Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria in December 2022. Renewcell decided to reorganize operations at the demo plant in Kristinehamn/Sweden to solely focus on product and process development. Therefore, the company is reducing the number of employees in Kristinehamn by 20. The ramp-up of Renewcell 1 towards 60,000 tons in capacity continues in the coming year. During January 2023 Renewcell 1 produced over 1,000 tons of dissolving pulp, of which about half was of prime quality (within specification for Circulose). About 190 tons were delivered to customers, the rest is in stock for later delivery. Circulose = registered trademarks 8 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

In 2022, Spinnova saw sales increase to € 24.3 mill. (2021: € 6.1 mill.). Total investments were around € 16.3 mill. (2021: € 4.4 mill.). The increase was mainly related to the Woodspin joint venture (JV). Besides building the first commercial factory for Woodspin, a 50/50 JV between Spinnova and Suzano, feasibility planning for Woodspin’s second factory has been ongoing. The construction work for Woodspin’s first factory in central Finland was completed at the end of October 2022, after which work to finalize the technology installations has continued. The factory has started up and has been producing fibers since February 2023. The ramp-up will continue through 2023, gradually increasing production capacity. Textile development work by Spinnova Oy, Jyväskylä/Finland, continues, with plans to launch the first products using micro-fibrillated cellulose (MFC) from Suzano SA, Salvador/Brazil, as raw material. Feasibility planning for the next plant progressed well during 2022. Both optimal size and comparison of brownfield and greenfield sites are under evaluation. Spinnova is actively working with Suzano to improve the efficiency of the raw material process. At the same time Spinnova continues to further develop the technology concept of the spinning process. The business case for the next Woodspin factory investment is being finalized and will use the learnings fromthe first factory as it ramps up production. It is there- fore expected that the next Woodspin plant will be completed after 2024. At the end of 2022 the Respin pilot line built by Spinnova (a JV with KT Innovations AG, Hünenberg/Germany) produced fiber from leather waste raw material. Following the success of the pilot trials, Spinnova and shoe and leather goods producer Ecco GmbH, Hamburg/Germany, have agreed to proceed towards commercializing the product and to go ahead with a feasibility study and pre- engineering of the first commercial factory, which is planned to be located in the Netherlands. Spinnova will continue to work towards its long and medium-term business targets and execute its strategy accordingly in 2023. In 2023, revenues are estimated to be lower than in 2022, impacted by expected phasing of technology sales fees. The loss will increase during 2023 as the company is ramping up operations. Woodspin plant completed in 2022 COMPANY: Spinnova FOCUS: Business COMPANY: Trevira FOCUS: Fibers 2022 was marked by unprecedented crises. The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, disrupted supply chains and the energy predicament triggered by the war in Ukraine has shaped recent global economic conditions. Because of these influences, particularly the rapidly rising energy and raw material costs, the flame retardant Trevira fibers and filament yarns business also came under pressure. Overall, the outlook for polyester manufacturer Trevira GmbH, Bobingen/Germany, in 2023 is slightly optimistic, but the market is only expected to recover in quarters 2-3. The production of flame retardant staple fibers Trevira CS fell slightly short of the targets set for 2022. In the first 9 months this was around 10% higher than a year earlier, but this was put into perspective by a significant drop in demand in the 4th quarter of 2022. Business proved particularly robust in Italy and Turkey, where the company achieved the targets set for 2022. Particularly noteworthy in the past year is the high demand for recycled fibers (pre-consumer) for use in Trevira CS eco textiles. Due to delays in the ramp-up phase, it was not possible to fully meet the requested quantities. Significant growth potential is seen here for 2023. The investment in a new melt filter for one of the company’s spinning plants and the resulting process optimization will help to better meet the increasing demand. In the area of flame retardant filament yarns, the targets set for 2022 fell slightly short, and in terms of volume performed about 4% below plan. For 2023, Trevira has set a growth target of 5% for this segment. Trevira CS fabrics are also available in recycled variants. They consist of fiber and filament yarns obtained in various recycling processes. Trevira CS eco qualities have a recycled content of at least 50%. Filament yarns are produced using recycled PET bottles, meaning yarns contain 50% post-consumer recycled material. Recycled fibers are made from 100% recycled material (pre-consumer recycling) obtained from production waste via an agglomeration plant and further processing steps. All flame retardant, recycled Trevira products are GRS (Global Recycled Standard) certified. There is a take-back and recycling option for Trevira CS fabrics. Used Trevira CS fabrics (post-consumer) or unsold Trevira CS residual materials (pre-consumer) can be recycled as part of the Trevira CS return program. Only Trevira CS qualified fabrics can be returned. The mechanical recycling process and further processing into nonwovens occurs at Altex Gronauer Filz GmbH, Gronau /Germany. A long-term goal is to move into a closed-loop economy. The starting point for the new development is a chemically recycled raw material. Thus, in this Trevira CS product development, fibers and filament yarns are made from raw material that is predominantly chemically recycled, and to a small extent from renewable raw materials. On the way to a circular economy 9 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

In May 2022, Advent and Lanxess announced the envisaged establishment of an Advent controlled, high-performance engineering materials joint venture (JV) company with sales of around €3 billion, combining the DSM Engineering Materials business with Lanxess’ High Performance Materials business. Competition authorities have granted merger clearance for the JV by Advent International Corp., Boston, MA/USA, and Lanxess AG, Cologne/Germany. Most approved the transaction during the course of last year and lately the EU Commission granted clearance on January 9, 2023. The transaction is therefore ready for closing which is now planned to take place no later than the beginning of April 2023. Competition authorities clear engineering materials JV COMPANIES: Lanxess/Advent FOCUS: Business COMPANIES: Lenzing / Renewcell FOCUS: Recycling A multi-year supply agreement has been signed between the supplier of sustainably produced specialty fibers Lenzing AG, Lenzing /Austria, and the textile-totextile recycling pioneer Renewcell AB, Stockholm/Sweden, and will accelerate the transition of the textile industry from a linear to a circular business model. The agreement contains the sale of 80,000 to 100,000 tons of Renewcell’s 100% recycled textile Circulose dissolving pulp to Lenzing over a 5-year period, for use in the production of cellulosic fibers for fashion and other textile applications. By signing the agreement, Lenzing is able to further integrate recycling and accelerate the transition of the textile industry from linear to circular. Canopy Planet Society, Vancouver/Canada, a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to protecting forests, species, and climate, welcomes the agreement between Lenzing and Renewcell. With its Refibra and Eco Cycle technologies, Lenzing offers solutions for transforming the textile and nonwovens industries towards a circular economy. Part of its corporate strategy and sustainability targets is to offer its Tencel and Lenzing Ecovero branded specialty textile fibers with up to 50% post-consumer recycled content on a commercial scale by 2025. Circulose originates 100% from textile waste, like old jeans and production scraps, and turns into dissolving pulp. It transforms textile waste and production scrap into new high-quality textile products. From linear to circular business model Urs Meier MANAGEMENT Using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) in construction was considered revolutionary, if not utopian, a good 40 years ago. Urs Meier, the former director of Empa's Dübendorf campus, who came up with this idea and contributed significantly to its realization through his research and developments, celebrate his 80th birthday on January 8, 2023. During his career, Meier acquired several patents and published around 300 scientific and technical papers. He gave hundreds of lectures, courses and keynote speeches around the world to promote the use of composites, especially CFRP in construction. Meier has also received a number of prestigious awards: In 2004, the Canada Research Network thanked him for his years of collaborationwith a scholarship named after him, the Urs Meier Scholarschip. In 2005, the Royal Military College of Canada awarded himan honorary doctorate, honoring himas the "intellectual originator of Canada's successes in the field of carbon fiber-reinforced structures." The following year, the International Society for Fiber-Reinforced Plastics in Construction (IIFC) honored him with the Lifetime Achievement Award. This was followed in 2007 by the Fellowship Award of the International Society for Structural Health Monitoring of Intelligent Infrastructure (ISHMII). In 2008, the Department of Materials at ETH Zurich awarded him the Staudinger-Durrer Medal on the occasion of his retirement for his many years of lecturing at the university. In 2019, he received the Fellow Award of the Society for the Advancement of Materials and ProcessEngineering(SAMPE),whichisrepresented in around 40 countries. And finally, in 2022, at the conclusion of the 18th European Bridge Conference in Edinburgh, Meier was honored with the Lifetime Achievement Award. Even after his (official) retirement in 2008, Meier remained at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Empa, Dübendorf/Switzerland, and worked on various projects. One of the more recent works was an expert opinion on a rail bridge in Stuttgart-Degerloch / Germany. 10 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Today, polyester accounts for 60 % of all textiles produced worldwide and a third of the fashion industry’s greenhouse gas emission. By replacing fossil fuel sources by CO2-based sources, sustainable and scalable solution to energy intensive industries can be found. This is the starting point for the EU-wide collaborative project “Threading CO2”, which is funded under the EU's Horizon funding program. The project will bring products made of environmentally friendly polyester (PET) to market maturity. The technological basis has been developed by Fairbrics SAS, Paris/France. It involves the production of monoethylene glycol (MEG), the starting material for the manufacture of polyester, using CO2 extracted from industrial waste gases. This is a completely new approach, because in the classic process fossil raw materials are consumed for the production of PET. In this way, not only is the release of CO2 into the atmosphere directly prevented. The CO2 also contributes to increased added value by being incorporated into the production of high-quality textile products. The core of the project is the technological upscaling of the new MEG synthesis process in pilot plants, paving the way for industrial production. Under the leadership of Fairbrics, 17 project partners from 7 European countries are unified with the common goal of producing end products from PET in a closed cycle using industrial CO2 emissions and to bring them to market maturity. A total amount of €22 million has been raised, €17 million from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 Research & Innovation Program and €5 million from Partners to the Technology Upscaling Project. Polyester fibers bind CO2 COMPANIES: Fairbrics/DITF FOCUS: Innovation Rolls, godets, heating elements and custom built machines for heat treatment and drawing of synthetic filaments. Win – OLT® yarn tension on-line monitoring systems. Engineered and produced in Switzerland expert at drawing your fibres to perfection Retech Aktiengesellschaft CH-5616 Meisterschwanden The German Institutes of Textile and Fiber Research (DITF), Denkendorf/Germany, will take on the task of accompanying the upscaling and taking the step 'from molecule to material': From the sustainably produced MEG, polyesters are synthesized in their own laboratories, spun into fibers, textured and further processed. The aim is to test whether the quality of the polyester and its spinnability and processability in the textile value chain are comparable with conventional PET. The project partners Faurecia SA, Nanterre/France, and Les Tissages de Charlieu Sarl, Charlieu/France, process the fibers and textiles into car seats and clothing so that the quality can also be assessed in the end product. The subsequent recyclability of the products will also be tested at the DITF. In addition, a security marking is to be developed for this CO2-based polyester to protect it from product piracy. extracted from industrial waste gases CO2 Using 11 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

With a flame-retardant fiber manufacturing technology, TFJ Inc., Suwon/Korea, has developed a high-performance flame-retardant fiber. This Materium fiber is generated during the carbon fiber manufacturing process and can be used as an alternative to aramid fibers. Materium maintains the characteristics of acrylic fiber and can be applied to various applications. It has a very good flame retardant performance (LOI 40 or higher). The black carbon fiber Materium is very soft and flexible and can be combined with other fibers. Eco-friendly water repellent function can also be added. As part of the realignment of SGL Carbon, strategic options were developed for all Business Units. In this context, the site network of the Business Unit (BU) Composite Solutions was also reviewed. The BU Composite Solutions offers customer-oriented and tailor-made solutions based on carbon and glass fibers for high-tech applications in the automotive, aerospace, energy and other industrial sectors. The review revealed that the site in Gardena, CA/USA, should no longer be embedded in the strategic alignment. Against this background, SGL Carbon SE, Wiesbaden/Germany, sold its business activities at the Gardena site to an affiliate of Tex-Tech Industries, Inc., Kernersville, NC/USA, effective February 16, 2023. This also includes all plant and machinery as well as customer contracts served from the Gardena site that will be fulfilled by the buyer in the future. The employees of the site were also taken over by the buyer. The property will remain in the possession of SGL Carbon and will be leased to the buyer for use. In the future, BU Composite Solutions will serve its North American business from its site in Arkadelphia, AR/USA, which is being expanded as a hub for the manufacturing of composite components, in particular for large-volume orders from North American automotive customers. Soft flame- resistant fiber Business activities at Gardena site sold COMPANY: TFJ FOCUS: Innovation COMPANY: SGL Carbon FOCUS: Business Philipp Ebbinghaus MANAGEMENT As of January 1, 2023, Philipp Ebbinghaus, Chief Officer of both Finance and IT (CFO and CITO) and CFO of the US subsidiary Sandler Nonwoven Corporation, will be a member of the management board of Sandler AG, Schwarzenbach/Germany. On December 31, 2022, his predecessor, board member Wolfgang Höflich retired after 46 years with the company. CEO Dr. ChristianHeinrich Sandler, Dr. Ulrich Hornfeck (board member), and Ebbinghaus will continue shaping the company as new management board. Höflich spent almost his entire professional life at Sandler. He started in 1976 as an assistant to the site management and 7 years later rose to the position of site manager with full power of attorney. Since 1995, he has been responsible for the Production Division, initially as head of production, and from 2010, as a member of the management board. Höflich’s responsibility for the Production Division has already been takenover by StephanHopster since July 2022. As of January 1, 2023, Hopster is reporting directly to the CEO. Thomas Oetterli MANAGEMENT Effective March 13, 2023, Thomas Oetterli will take over as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Rieter from Norbert Klapper. Oetterli has also been proposed as a member of the Board of Directors. Oetterli has made a major contribu- tion to the successful development of the Schindler Group, Ebikon/Switzerland, starting in 2006 as CEO Switzerland, later as amember of the Group Executive Committee responsible for Europe and China, and from 2016 until 2022 as CEO of the Group. With his many years of indus- trialandinternationalexperience,Oetterlibrings goodprerequisites to leadRieterAG,Winterthur/ Switzerland, as a global market leader through the current challenges. Following his departure as CEO, Klapper will be available to the Chairman of the Board of Directors as Senior Advisor until the end of September 2023. 12 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Smart fabrics allow for the seamless integration of electronics, optics, biosensors, and mechanics into a thin strand of fiber that is intrinsically flexible and as thin as a human hair. These fabrics can then be used to monitor vital physiological signals related to our mental and physical health status. A team of researchers from Tohoku University's Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Sendai/Japan, has developed a microelectronic fiber with microscopic parameters that is capable of analyzing electrolytes and metabolites in sweat. Its micrometer (µm) scale allows it to be woven into clothes for healthcare applications. To produce the fiber, the thermal drawing process was used, where heat is applied to draw out micro-structured fiber from its macroscopic preform. 2 sensing electrodes for sodium and uric acid were also patterned onto the longitudinal surface of the fiber. Although mainstream photolithography and printing technology have enabled wearable electronics, doing so often entails attaching relatively rigid electronic patches to existing fabrics or directly on the skin, leading to only a small area of the body being covered. Since most developments so far could not be considered clothes, efforts were devoted to transforming fiber, to make truly wearable smart fabric. The fiber could lead to fiber-based smart clothes that provide greater versatility in functions, larger sensing areas, and greater comfort. The latest innovation from The Lycra Company is a solution for everyday socks that provides functional performance and offers lightweight warmth and comfort for consumers. Thermolite Everyday Warmth technology for socks is unique in that it traps the wearer’s body heat and stores it in hollow fibers in the sock to provide warmth without excess weight. The Lycra Company,Wilmington, DE/USA, has defined fiber blends for the everyday sock to help keep the wearer comfortable while temperatures drop indoors or outdoors. Through a proprietary, standardized measurement technique, values have been established that measure the degree of warmth for socks, helping to ensure that consumers’ feet stay warm. As the temperatures drop and people lower their thermostats to save energy, socks can help keep feet warm. The launch of Thermolite Everyday Warmth technology for socks enables brands to differentiate their products while providing consumers in colder environments the warmth they require. Thermolite = registered trademark Non-invasive health monitoring with micro- electronic fibers Warm feet due to hollow fiber solution in socks COMPANY: Fibertex Corp. FOCUS: Acquisition INSTITUTE: Tohoku University FOCUS: Innovation COMPANY: The Lycra Company FOCUS: Innovation SteinFibers LLC,Albany,NY/USA, has acquired the fiber operations of Fibertex Corp., Cranford, NJ/USA. The combination of Fibertex and Stein Fibers will expand the leading fiber product portfolio in North America and allow each company to better serve its customers. Stein Fibers is a supplier and producer of polyester fiberfill and of fibers for nonwovens in North America. Fibertex Corp. was founded in 1952 in Manchester/UK. In 1991 after identifying sales opportunities in the USA, Fibertex Corp. was incorporated, and the development of US sales of polyester staple fiber was started. Acquisition by Stein Fibers 13 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Man-made fibers research innovations at universities and research institutes are supported with the annual awarding of the Paul Schlack Prize as well as cooperation with the industry with the Honorary Prize. In 2023, European Man-Made Fibres Association (CIRFS), Brussels/Belgium, will continue the tradition at the 62nd Dornbirn Global Fiber Congress (GFC) from September 13-15, 2023, in Dornbirn/Austria highlighting R&D excellence at the plenary session. The main Paul Schlack Prize will be awarded with € 3.000 for an author of a theme from a university or research institute. The Honorary Prize will be presented for a project leader of a joint research project between a university/research institute and industry. The submission of proposals for the Paul Schlack Prize 2023 are invited with the deadline for applications of May 15, 2023. An international jury representing academic and industrial institutions will select the winner. All application documents should be preferably submitted in English, or in another European language, and should include a copy of the published work. An English summary must be provided in all cases. The winners will be announced at the Dornbirn GFC 2023 in September. The winner of the Paul Schlack prize will be asked to report on the results of his/her research by presenting a 5-minute summary (in English or German) at the opening of the congress. An agreement has been signed between Carbios and PVH Corp. to join its fiber-to-fiber consortium founded with On, Patagonia, Puma, and Salomon. Committed to accelerating the transition of the textile industry toward a circular economy. Carbios, On AG, Zurich/Switzerland, Patagonia, Ventura, CA/USA, Puma AG, Herzogenaurach/Germany, and Salomon SAS, Epangy Metz-Tessy/France, and PVH Corp. collaborate to test and enhance Carbios’ biological recycling technology on their own products. The aim is to prove fiber-to-fiber closed circularity using Carbios’ bio-recycling process at an industrial scale in support of the consortium members’ ambitious sustainability commitments. During the 2-year collaboration, Carbios SA, Clermont-Ferrand/ France, and its partners collaborate to deliver the biological recycling of polyester items at industrial-scale, including thorough sorting and dismantling technologies for complex textile waste. The existing members voted unanimously for PVH Corp. (parent company of Calvin Klein and Tommy Hilfiger), New York, NY/ USA, to join the consortium. Carbios has developed a unique and sustainable technology using highly selective enzymes that can recycle blended feedstocks, therefore reducing extensive sorting required by Paul Schlack Prize 2023 – Call for applications Fiber-to-fiber consortium welcomes PVH Corp. EVENT: Dornbirn GFC FOCUS: Award COMPANY: Carbios FOCUS: Collaboration To prove fiber-to-fiber closed circularity current thermomechanical recycling methods. For mixed fiber textile materials, the company’s patented enzyme acts solely on the PET polyester found within. This innovative process creates recycled PET (r-PET), equivalent in quality to virgin PET, that can be used to produce new textile fibers. Globally, only 13% of textile waste is currently recycled and mainly in lower quality applications such as padding, insulation or rags. The remaining 87% is destined for landfill or incineration. In order to work on improving textile recycling technologies, Consortium members will supply feedstock in the form of apparel, underwear, footwear and sportswear. In 2023, a new line for textile PET waste will be operational at Carbios’ demonstration facility through the "LIFE Cycle of PET" project co-funded by L'Instrument Financier pour l'Environnement (LIFE) the European Union. This comes in anticipation of future regulations, such as the separate collection of textile waste to be made mandatory in Europe from January 1, 2025. M A Y 15 2023 14 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

The joint venture (JV) RePEaT has signed an agreement to license its chemical recycling technology for polyester products to Zhejiang Jianxin as the world's first company to be licensed by RePEaT. JV RePEaT supports the implementation of resource-recovery mechanisms (ecosystems) for the recycling of polyester products to help reduce carbon emissions in both the manufacture and eventual disposal of polyester clothing. The company will provide a technology that uses the organic compound DMT for the chemical decomposition, conversion and then repolymerization of polyester (PET). Zhejiang Jianxin Jiaren New Materials Co., Ltd., Shaoxing/China, will use the technology in a polyester-product recycling plant, which is planned to start up in Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province next year. RePEaT Co., Ltd., Tokyo/Japan, is a JV established in January 2023 by Teijin Ltd., Tokyo/ Japan, JGC Holdings Corp., Yokohama/Japan, and Itochu Corp., Tokyo, to license recycling technology based on Teijin’s expertise in dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), JGC’s expertise for general engineering in plant construction, and Itochu’s global network spanning diverse industries. Zhejiang Jianxin, specialized in operating chemical-recycling plants, was established in 2022 and is a member of the Jinggong Holding Group, Shaoxing, which operates businesses in China focused on environmental management in the steel, textile, building materials and beverage sectors. PET chemical recycling technology licensed to Chinese company COMPANIES: Teijin / RePEaT FOCUS: Recycling Achieving the same flowability and mechanical properties as injection molding grades from virgin polyamide 66 (PA 66), Toray has developed recycled PA 66 recovered from silicone-coated airbag fabric scrap cuttings. The company created this product by combining particular additives with resin that Refinverse recycled by stripping silicone from airbag fabric scrap cuttings and thereafter washed. Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo/Japan, expects the new offering, Ecouse Amilan, will accelerate the expansion of Ecouse, a proprietary integrated brand for eco-friendly recycled materials and products that it rolled out worldwide in 2015. The PA 66 fabric of airbags can be silicone-coated or non-coated. Manufacturers normally recycle the scrap cuttings of non-coated fabrics. Recycling coated airbag fabric scrap cuttings requires removing the silicone. Refinverse Group, Inc., Tokyo/Japan, was the first in Japan to achieve commercial-scale silicone-coated fabric recycling. Recycled PA 66 recovered from silicone-coated airbags COMPANY: Toray FOCUS: Recycling Recycling through stripping and washing has typically left silicone traces, however, degrading the resin and contaminating molds during injection molding. Another issue has been that the high viscosity of airbag yarn limits applications in thin-wall and other injection molding processes in which high fluidity is vital. Toray accordingly combined particular additives so residual silicone resin would not migrate to the surface of molded products. It also greatly reduced mold adhesion. That is why the flowability and mechanical properties of recycled PA 66 with Toray’s technique are equal to those of virgin PA 66. The company has cultivated recycled plastic products derived primarily from post-industrial scrap materials from in-house production processes, undertaking such efforts as recycling used air conditioner parts into new ones. It aims to extend recycling to used automotive parts and industrial equipment. Toray intends to launch Ecouse Toraycon as a chemically recycled polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resin product that has properties equivalent to virgin materials. It will keep assessing material recycling and chemical recycling for its own polymers in driving to expand the Ecouse lineup by bringing out such products as Ecouse Toyolac acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Ecouse Torelina polyphenylene sulfide. Amilan, Toraycon, Toyolac, Torelina = trademarks 15 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS

Recycled Carbon Fiber Filament Winding Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Unidirectional Tape Together with its project partners at the National Institute of Technology at Kitakyushu College and the Tokyo University of Science, Asahi Kasei has developed a recycling method that allows carbon fibers to be extracted from carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastics (CFRTP) used in automobiles. This results in high-quality, inexpensive continuous carbon fiber that can be recycled perpetually, contributing to circular economy. Unlike carbon fiber that is chopped up during the recycling process, the new method allows carbon fiber to be extracted from a plastic compound seamlessly, resulting in continuous strands of carbon fiber that can be reapplied in exactly the same manner while retaining properties identical to the original substance. The conventional technologies for recycling carbon fibers by chopping and reapplying them results in a product with lower quality and less durability, insufficient for high-performance applications. To address this issue, Asahi Kasei Corp., Tokyo/Japan, has developed an “electrolyzed sulfuric acid solution method” that allows the carbon fiber to retain its original strength and continuous nature while fully decomposing the resin the carbon fiber is embedded in. This allows for its continued use in high-performance applications and presents an inexpensive, circular solution to the end-of-life dilemma of carbon fiber plastic compounds. Thus, these carbon fiber compounds present in vehicles for weight reduction can be easily and inexpensively broken down at end-of-vehicle-life and reapplied to new vehicles in the future. In addition, Asahi Kasei is developing a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic unidirectional tape (CFRTP-UD tape) that utilizes both recycled continuous carbon fiber and the company’s Leona polyamide resin. With a higher strength than metal, this CFRTP-UD tape can be applied to automobile frames and bodies, further enabling the recycling of end-of-vehicle-life parts into different, new automobile parts. Leona = trademark Closed-loop recycling system for carbon fiber Zschimmer & Schwarz MANAGEMENT Effective January 1, 2023, Dr. Christoph Riemer has assumed the role of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the Zschimmer & Schwarz Group. Together with Chief Financial Officer (CFO) Dietmar Clausen and Chief Operating Officer (COO) Dr. Felix Grimm, he will determine the future course of the globally operating company group for a successful business development. Zschimmer & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG, Lahnstein/Germany, has thus successfully completed the change of its management. The previous General Manager Operations Wolfgang Nowak left the company at his own request on December 31, 2022, to take on new professional challenges. Dr.MartinHaberl, previously General Manager Sales & Marketing, left the General Management at the same time. With his many years of experience, he will continue to be available to Zschimmer & Schwarz in an advisory capacity before retiring, probably in mid-2023. Simon Whitmarsh-Knight MANAGEMENT Simon Whitmarsh-Knight is the new Textile Global Marketing Director of Hyosung TNC, Seoul/South Korea. In this position he will lead Hyosung’s global marketing of the textile fiber brands creora elastane, Mipan polyamide, and specialty polyester fibers to deliver continuous innovation, superior value, and collaborative services throughout the textile value chain. Whitmarsh-Knight brings with him sales, marketing, and team-building experience growing business across the specialtyfiber, technical textile and performance apparel markets. Before joining Hyosung TNC, he was Managing Director of HD Wool Active Insulation, Shipley/ UK, EMEA Marketing Director for Hyosung, and previously, Invista, S.à.r.l., Wichita, KS/USA. He will be based in the UK and support the team and will connect with leading international, brands, retailers, and value chain partners. COMPANY: Asahi Kasei FOCUS: Recycling 16 MAN-MADE FIBERS INTERNATIONAL 1 | 2023 NEWS