BEYOND THE HORIZON PROCESS SOLUTIONS FOR POLYMER RECYCLING AND SOLID STATE POLYMER UPGRADING Polymetrix, a Sanlian Buhler Company, provides process technology including EPCM services for the polymer recycling and manufacturing industry. Leading supplier of rPET systems and intergated rPET plants for single line capacities up to 70’000 tons per year. www.polymetrix.com www.slhpcn.com ON W LINE E ARE Our digital content home! textiletechnology.net Chemical Fibers International Fiber Polymers, Fibers, Texturing and Spunbonds November 2022 D 2047 E 4
For further information visit us at www.oerlikon.com/polymer-processing Innovation starts with Creativity “We have been consistently inspiring the global manmade fiber industry with disruptive, sustainable innovations for over 100 years. ” Georg Stausberg CEO, Oerlikon Polymer Processing Solutions R @ OHNMDDQ NE SGD L@ML@CD jADQ HMCTRSQX ENTMCDC HM always oriented on the guiding stars of innovation and technology leadership within a global market environment – this is us, the Oerlikon Barmag of today. A strong entrepreneurial spirit and boundless creativity have shaped us. We are proud of our entire global workforce. The creative utilization of its experience and knowledge potential in close collaboration with high-performance partners, suppliers and services providers is the key to our sustained success. We focus on close cooperation with our customers, offering them market-oriented innovations and services. These are based on interdisciplinary, team-oriented development work and high-quality production procedures. In the future, we will continue to constantly question established processes and break down conventional procedures and ways of thinking. Because innovation starts with creativity. And we actively promote these with our multicultural and open corporate culture.
LEADER The new EU Textile Strategy and the desire of consumers for responsibly produced and reused textiles are driving new concepts in textile recycling. Holistic action along the entire textile value chain must, however, be oriented to technical realities, which is why some frequently expressed theses require correction. 1. Recycling is limited to apparel textiles Textiles are more than just clothing. Technical textiles, textile floorcoverings, mattresses and other home textiles must be as equally integrated into the recycling systems of the future as composites, hygiene textiles and construction and geotextiles. Overall, taking all of these products into account, the volume of end-of-life textiles is probably more than twice the size of just the apparel market. Unfortunately, precise figures are missing, which makes the development of suitable recycling concepts difficult. Most importantly, these products are also a good target market for recycled textile products and can absorb significant amounts of secondary materials. Above all, we need collection systems (and the related volume figures) for all textiles in order to find completely satisfactory and efficient solutions. 2. The future lies in textiles made from one material Textiles live from the diversity of materials; blends are the driving force of innovation in textile design in order to be able to present the desired and appropriate functionality of the products. Fashion needs the innovative power of different designs; technical textiles generate their multi-functionality from the combination of different materials. Single- material systems would make smart textiles and composite materials impossible to achieve, thus preventing intelligent textile solutions as well as resource-saving lightweight products. Modern recycling systems must face the challenges of such products and create innovative solutions through design-for-recycling approaches that define functionality and recycling not as a contradiction but as a challenge. Undeniably, unnecessary material diversity must of course be avoided if the function does not absolutely require it. This applies not only to the basic materials but to all haberdasheries like zippers, specification labels or functional elements… However, above all, it is important to redefine the bonding and coating systems and to create intelligent systems that also enable the bonds to be detached (debond on demand). We need to learn how to create recycling systems that enable effective recycling even with multi-material systems without first completely separating all materials. Fiber blends can, as first trials in our Recycling Atelier show, certainly be recycled together and reassembled with virgin materials in the design process to create products that are in demand. 3. Chemical recycling will be the only system of the future In a holistically sensible recycling strategy, the waste pyramid specifies the gradation of the various recycling concepts. The best quality recovery lies in the greater use of reuse (also, and especially for, technical textiles). This starts with improved return systems and the building of an attractive re-sale strategy. We need to make greater use of this and also integrate textiles not previously covered into our collection and return systems. Mechanical recycling also offers considerable potential for more effective utilization, which must be exploited, especially since industrial maturity is already in place today. With improved quality assurance systems and newly coordinated process control, quality loss can be effectively countered as long as the fiber still has sufficient length for reuse. Without a doubt, chemical recycling has great potential for the future, but considerable research efforts will be needed to create systems that are ready for industrial use and meet all economic and ecological requirements. The major obstacle for a short-term introduction of chemical recycling is the still missing industrial maturity compared to mechanical recycling. The various recycling concepts should therefore not be seen primarily in competition with each other, but should be used in a sensible complementary sequence. 4. Cradle-to-cradle is the only approach for circular-oriented recycling Cradle-to-cradle is an effective and sensible principle for a true circular economy. However, it should not be dogmatically defined as the only way to recycle textiles, as the often unavoidable quality losses in recycling prohibit choosing only this path. Textile design creativity often allows much more useful products to emerge if we choose creative approaches to realize product use not only in a closed loop, but also to direct it to other application scenarios. 5. Recycling is based only on technically innovative solutions Without question, technical innovations are the driver for developing new processes. However, the focus must first be on the development of new products to ensure the triad of technical, economic and ecological meaningfulness of the products. This then forms the basis for the industrial upscaling of recycling processes based on improved process technology. Stefan Schlichter Managing Director Institut für Textiltechnik Augsburg gGmbH Augsburg/Germany 5 theses on textile recycling that call for correction Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 161
162 Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 CONTENTS Leader 105 5 theses on textile recycling that call for correction S. Schlichter Industry News 164 Circular solutions with alternative raw materials (Covestro) 164, 168, 169 Fiber news (PyroTex, Spinnova, Teijin Frontier) 164, 169, 171, 172, 174, 177 Current acquisitions; co-operations; joint ventures (PET Baltija/Tesil Fibres; Ambercycle/Saucony, Ascend/Circular Polymer, Bozzetto/Levaco, Hologenix/Wellman, IFG/Omya, Kelheim Fibres/TextileGenesis, Reliance/FRX, The Lycra Company/Qore, Andritz/LUT University, FET/Rheon Labs) 165 Marcus Wallenberg prize for I. Kilpeläinen and H. Sixta 165 Blockchain technology pilot project (Asahi Kasei) 166 Lenzing’s Young Scientist Award 2022 166 New bio-based and circular plastics (Fraunhofer UMSICHT) 168, 170, 176 Company finances (IVL, Lenzing, Oerlikon) 168, 170, 171, 173, 177, 180 Industry news (AMSilk, Invista, IFG, ITMF, Kolon, Lenzing, NGR, Rowa, Venator) 174 100% recycled textile waste for high-performance insulation (The Lycra Company) 175 New technologies and test center for recycling fibers and textiles (EREMA) 176 Development of fibers from recycled plastics (DITF) 177 Digital offensive for cross-vendor approach (Reifenhäuser) 178, 179 Trade fairs, exhibitions and conferences (JEC, Dornbirn GFC, India ITME) 180, 181 Nonwovens news (Freudenberg PM, INDA, Mogul, PFNonwovens, Toray) 180 PA as liner material for hydrogen tanks (Hyosung TNC) Fiber Raw Materials 182 Introduction of new polymers to the industry — challenges and risks U. Thiele 184 Gasoline market disruptions impact polyester chain J. Rivera 4 Chemical Fibers International Fiber Polymers, Fibers, Texturing and Spunbonds November 2022 Volume 72
CONTENTS Fibers 186 Bio-based hybrid fibers with reduced flammability I. Bernt, T. Bechtold 188 Eco-friendly and sustainable fibers for Sporttech M. Basuk, R.V. Adivarekar Fiber Production 189 Monofilament winding innovation (Sahm) 190 Greater European synthetic fiber producers: Cellulosic, elastane fibers, protein fibers, PLA fibers and monofilaments 196 Texturing machine for flexible production (SSM) 197 Light, precise and durable deflection rollers (Temco) Textile Industry 198 Bio is not necessarily bio T. Saragi 200 IR-marked sewing and embroidery yarns for protection against forgery K. Schäfer, V. Yawuz, P. Kreis et al. 204 Properties of polyester/bamboo blended yarns and fabrics R.N. Narkhedkar, S.S. Lavate 206 Renewable cellulose-based fillers for rubber production (Empa/Dätwyler Schweiz) 208 PAN nano-cobweb/bead-on-string fiber composite membrane for air filtration Y. Liu, W. Wang, N. Wang et al. 216 TREND REPORT: The energy crisis and its impact on our industry R. Brückner, A. Pieper Nonwovens 211 Cellulose aerogel nonwovens — sustainable insulators of tomorrow M. Mohr et al. 213 New additions to spray bonding capabilities (NIRI) 214 The stuff that artificial brains are made of (Bielefeld UAS) 172, 176, 178, 180, 183, 185 Management 185, 195, 196, 197, 199 New books 215 Calendar Inner back cover Company index Inner back cover Imprint Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 163
164 Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 INDUSTRY NEWS To enable large-scale commercial production of bio-derived elastane (spandex) using Qira, the next generation 1,4-butanediol (BDO), as one of its main ingredients, The Lycra Company has entered into an agreement with Qore LLC, South Bend, IN/USA. This will result in 70% of the Lycra elastane fiber content being derived from annually renewable feedstock. This change could potentially reduce the carbon footprint of Lycra fiber by up to 44% versus equivalent product made from fossil-based resources, while maintaining the same high-quality performance parameters of the traditional fiber. Qira will be produced in Eddyville, IA/USA, at the biotechnology campus and corn refining operation of Cargill Inc., Wayzata, MN/USA. The facility, which is currently being built, will commence operations in 2024. The first renewable Lycra fiber made with Qira will be produced at The Lycra Company’s Tuas/Singapore manufacturing site in 2024. The first generation of renewable Lycra fiber made with Qira will use feedstock from field corn grown by farmers in Iowa/USA and will enable a significant reduction in CO2 footprint. In addition to replacing a finite resource with an annually renewable one, another benefit for mills, brands and retailers is that there is no change in fiber performance, eliminating the need for any re-engineering of fabrics, patterns, or processes. Equivalent performance was demonstrated in 2014 when the world’s first bio-derived elastane was launched under the Lycra brand. The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, has since been granted a patent for the process used to make renewable elastane from bio-derived BDO. The Lycra Company Collaboration for next-gen bio-derived fiber at scale of plastics. Through mass balancing, they are offered in the same good quality as their fossil-based counterparts without customers having to change their processing operations. The company works with a number of suppliers who offer the raw materials using a mass-balance approach certified to the internationally recognized ISCC PLUS standard. The starting point also includes fossil raw materials, with the biological portions being allocated to the products by a third party audited allocation method. Alternative raw materials are an important pillar in building a circular economy. Here, materials manufacturer Covestro is focusing on an increased use of biomass, recyclates and green hydrogen. The company is now offering products with a minimum content of 25% of alternative raw materials under the new CQ label. CQ offers a smarter approach to more sustainable materials and solutions where customers can easily distinguish products based on alternative raw materials from fossil-based ones by the CQ label in the product name. For the continuous evolution of recycling, Covestro AG, Leverkusen/Germany, is now introducing Evocycle CQ. It is an extension to the CQ label and stands for recycling technologies which enable the use of recycled plastics and recycled raw materials from the company’s portfolio within a streamlined closed-loop system. Furthermore, the company is not active alone here, rather collaborating with partners from all fields of recycling and reuse. In this way, it transforms the industry turning waste into valuable resources, reducing the use of fossil fuels and significantly reducing CO2 emissions. The first initiative is Evocycle CQ Mattress. Covestro, together with partners, has developed an innovative technology for the chemolysis of polyurethane (PU) flexible foams from used mattresses, in which both main components – the polyol and the precursor to the isocyanate TDI – can be recovered. With this, end of life mattress foams are directly transformed back into renewed PU building blocks. Since 2021, the company is operating a pilot plant at its Leverkusen site confirming the positive lab test results. Moreover, the company is working with recycling specialists such as Interzero Circular Solutions Germany GmbH, Cologne/Germany, and EcoMaison (formerly Eco-mobilier), Carcassonne/France, as well as other partners along the value chain, to ultimately close the material cycle for PU mattresses completely and on an industrial scale. Raw materials produced from biomass and, in particular, from biowaste and residual materials are also becoming increasingly important. Covestro relies primarily on the latter raw materials because they are available in large quantities and can be used to manufacture a wide range Covestro Circular solutions with alternative raw materials PyroTex Fiber achieves better virus protection A recent test has confirmed that PyroTex medic fiber has an activity of 98.71% against the fungus Candida auris. It is one of the few species of the genus Candida which can cause candidiasis in humans. This result has been confirmed by an independent, ISO certified laboratory according to AATCC 100-2019. Candidiasis can, for example, be acquired in hospitals and similar facilities. It can cause invasive candidiasis (fungemia) in which the bloodstream, the central nervous system, and internal organs are infected. Besides its activity against Candida auris, the PyroTex medic fiber from PyroTex Industries GmbH, Hamburg/Germany, also incapacitates the viruses SARS-CoV-2, H3N2, MS2, the bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Clostridium difficile, and the fungus Aspergillus niger. The properties do not have to be re-activated, remain indefinitely and are nontoxic (certified according to OekoTex Standard 100, class 1).
INDUSTRY NEWS Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 165 No. 1 on Regenerated Cellulosics www.maurer-sa.ch The 2022 Marcus Wallenberg Prize of SEK 2 million (€ 182,000) has been awarded to Prof. Ilkka Kilpeläinen and Prof. Herbert Sixta for the development and use of novel ionic liquids to process wood biomass into high-performance textile fibers. King Carl Gustaf XVI presented the prize on October 11, 2022, in Stockholm/Sweden. The future demand for textile fibers is growing due to global population growth. Production of cotton, the predominantly used cellulose fiber for textiles, is not expected to keep upwith the demand. Therefore, man-made cellulosic fibers are a very good complement for cotton as these fibers have similar properties. The main processes to produce manmade cellulosic textile fibers are the viscose process, where cellulose is solubilized using alkali and carbon disulfide and the lyocell process, where N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is used to dissolve cellulose. The viscose process has, however, become environmentally controversial due to the use of toxic carbon disulfide as the main reagent. The lyocell process, on the other hand, is hampered by the instability of the NMMO. These challenges have led to extensive research on different solvent systems for cellulose to produce regenerated cellulose fibers. Ionic liquids have gained interest as eco-friendly alternatives for organic solvents in different processes. Ionic liquids are salts that can be melted below 100 °C and have unique properties including low vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and high dissolving capability of different organic and inorganic substances. Man-made cellulosic fibers from wood with high technical quality have been developed by 2 research teams in Finland, at the University of Helsinki and at the Aalto University. In this concept, the design and use of novel super-base ionic liquids to process wood pulp into high-performance textile fibers was developed and currently tested for scaling-up. The team led by Prof. Kilpeläinen at the University of Helsinki developed super-base ionic liquid solvents for dissolution of wood biomass Marcus Wallenberg Prize 2022 Prize for Ilkka Kilpeläinen and Herbert Sixta e.g. bleached or unbleached pulp or recycled cellulose pulp. Prof. Sixta and his team at the Aalto University developed the ionic liquid-based fiber shaping process based on dry-jet wet spinning. The Marcus Wallenberg Prize is an international prize with the purpose of recognizing, encouraging and stimulating groundbreaking scientific achievements, which contribute significantly to broadening knowledge and to technical development within the fields of importance to forestry and forest industries. In September 2022 Asahi Kasei Europe became member of a pioneering joint project on blockchain technology for the ISCC PLUS certification. Led by the software provider Circularise, The Hauge/Netherlands, and the trading company Marubeni Corp., Tokyo/Japan, this project aims at enhancing the efficiency of the certification process and the integrity of the certified data. In order to achieve its goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050 and to contribute to a carbon-neutral society, the Asahi Kasei Group, Tokyo, is currently enhancing activities around the utilization of bio-based and recyclable materials, as well as renewable energy sources. To ensure full reliability and transparency, the company is accelerating the certification of its more sustainable materials. The ISCC PLUS certification is a leading global certification scheme that links the supply chain from raw materials such as biomass feedstock and recycled materials to finished products through mass balance management. This helps to guarantee full transparency of the final products to the end-user. In addition to the project leader Circularise, 10 companies across the entire supply chain, among them Asahi Kasei Europe, Düsseldorf/Germany, participated in this project, including chemical manufacturers, trading companies, and consumer electronics manufacturers. The mass balance management of ISCC PLUS certification was operated on Circularise’s software system, and the 10 companies conducted trial runs, testing the effectiveness of the system, as well as the material traceability and data verification. The results of the trials confirmed that in addition to the system efficiency, the utilization of blockchain technology ensures full confidentiality in the data transmission process across the entire supply chain, appropriate mass balance management, and full data reliability. Asahi Kasei Blockchain technology pilot project L-to-R: King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden, Prof. Ilkka Ki lpeläinen and Prof. Herbert Sixta (Source: MWP)
166 Chemical Fibers International 4/2022 INDUSTRY NEWS Her passion is bridging the gap between traditional business and the circular economy through cross-sectional collaboration. Flower Matter – Enable a circularity into the cut-flower industry through regenerative bio-based materials Flaux is an innovative textile material produced from flower waste resulting from a research project called ‘Flower Matter’ which is ongoing research of ways to sustainably valorize flower waste. The research of Flaux resulted in 2 higher academic research projects under 2 EU institutions (Germany and Finland) from design and management perspectives. For the first time, young researchers were honored with the Young Scientist Award of Lenzing for innovative research work in the fiber and textile sector. A jury of experts from the fiber industry and Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, nominated the 3 winners from numerous applications. On September 14, 2022, the opening day of the Dornbirn Global Fiber Congress (GFC), the prize money of € 5,000 per winner was awarded. These are the winners of the Young Scientist Award 2022 of Lenzing AG: Annah-Ololade Sangosanya, Institute of Ad. Architecture of Catalunya, Barcelona/Spain After her masters, she continued her studies at Fabricademy, textile and technology academy postgraduate (FabLab Barcelona) where she learnt how to use new technologies, biology and digital fabrication (3D design, rapid prototyping, electronics) for sustainable textile design. During her final postgraduate project, she did her thesis on the biodegradation and recycling of textile waste by mycelium, using very low means and low energy to grow. The Purhyphae Project: textile recycling using mycelium This project investigates ways to produce flexible mycelium materials through the biodegradation of various combinations of denim textile waste, synthetic textile waste, food waste and spent coffee grounds. The mycelium used was from the Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster) fungi. The results show that P. ostreatus (oyster) mycelium grows on all the combinations of food waste (vegetable peels and coffee grounds) with textile waste (synthetic textile and denim textile), and even grows on denim textile waste only. Petra Garajová, Fabricademy – Textile and Technology Academy, Nové Zámky/Slovakia Petra Garajová is a Slovak designer exploring the boundaries of material science, digital manufacturing and innovation currently. Her final project defines a new value of wool waste and reshapes the position of the designer in material innovation. Thanks to this opportunity she is now part of Shemakes.eu European project as an Ambassador between Fab Lab Barcelona and TextileLab Iceland working on the Lab to Lab project – Rethinking Wool. States of Matter – Wool fibers and non-traditional methods The project investigates chemical properties of wool waste. It defines a new value of wool using current technologies and design. The material research is focused on extraction of keratin and the usage of sustainable chemicals. Chanawan (Kao) Danpan, Flower Matter, Berlin/Germany As an experienced innovation manager and communicator Chanawan (Kao) Danpan is originally from Bangkok/Thailand. Lenzing Award for fair and sustainable textiles presented At the K Fair 2022, the leading international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf/Germany from October 19-26, 2022, Fraunhofer UMSICHT presented bio-based and circular plastics. These consist of valuable chemical intermediates from coffee grounds, a film material based on thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), PLA compounds for technical components and biodegradable mulch films. In the “InKa” project, for example, researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Oberhausen/Germany, are extracting a valuable chemical intermediate product from the inedible coffee oil, which is used in the production of additives for plastics. They are also trying to use the de-oiled coffee grounds as an alternative raw material for the paper and cardboard industry. A special challenge in the project is the scale-up of the process steps from laboratory to industrial production. The targeted process as a whole is highly innovative and makes an important contribution to the use of bio-based raw materials in the bioeconomy. On a laboratory scale, it can already be seen that the concept works, and it was possible to test the additives developed in new material formulations. The development of a film material based on thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) and X-ray detectable additives was the goal of the “DetekTPU” project. In food production, it is common to wear disposable protective clothing in order to comply with safety and hygiene regulations. Besides a large amount of plastic waste, there is also the problem that parts of the protective clothing can end up in the food and are not detected there. The material developed is to be used for reusable protective clothing that can be reliably detected by X-ray. Biodegradable plastics are useful in environmental applications where a recycling process is not possible or would be too costly. Examples of this are geotextiles or mulch films. Fraunhofer UMSICHT is researching plastics with adapted degradability that fulfil the desired properties during their service life. In order to investigate and evaluate the changes in the properties of plastics during ageing due to environmental influences, the researchers in the laboratory set the conditions as close to the application as possible. Depending on the product, different substrates (compost, soil, water), different temperatures and UV light can be used. Fraunhofer UMSICHT New bio-based and circular plasticswww.textiletechnology.net