melliand International 5/2022

Worldwide Textile Journal melliand International October 2022 D 5862 E 5 Solutions to spin recycled yarns. ON W LINE E ARE Our digital content home!

For further information visit us at Innovation starts with Creativity “We have been consistently inspiring the global manmade fiber industry with disruptive, sustainable innovations for over 100 years. ” Georg Stausberg CEO, Oerlikon Polymer Processing Solutions R @ OHNMDDQ NE SGD L@ML@CD jADQ HMCTRSQX ENTMCDC HM always oriented on the guiding stars of innovation and technology leadership within a global market environment – this is us, the Oerlikon Barmag of today. A strong entrepreneurial spirit and boundless creativity have shaped us. We are proud of our entire global workforce. The creative utilization of its experience and knowledge potential in close collaboration with high-performance partners, suppliers and services providers is the key to our sustained success. We focus on close cooperation with our customers, offering them market-oriented innovations and services. These are based on interdisciplinary, team-oriented development work and high-quality production procedures. In the future, we will continue to constantly question established processes and break down conventional procedures and ways of thinking. Because innovation starts with creativity. And we actively promote these with our multicultural and open corporate culture.

melliand International 5/2022 209 LEADER The focus of our German and European customers is currently very much on energy costs, as these have risen more sharply than ever before in recent weeks. Added to this is the not inconsiderable challenge of energy bottlenecks and with it the concern that there could be a general de-industrialization in Germany, possibly even an exodus of the European textile industry. But how do we deal with this as citizens, as responsible entrepreneurs and as part of this industry? In the short term, the cost of primary energy has risen extremely. Now, a gas price cap is being introduced to keep the impact on private households and companies in check. Compared with other producing countries, the cost of primary energy is far above the international benchmark, and this is compounded by significantly higher labor costs. Both these factors mean that the cost price of textile products in Europe is significantly higher than in Asia, South America, or Turkey. However, logistics costs from these countries to Europe have also risen sharply. In addition, high logistics costs also always mean high CO2 consumption – and this, too, has to be reduced in times of the Green Deal. As a mechanical engineering company, however, we have the impression that German textile manufacturers in particular have done a lot in recent years to optimize their processes, especially to reduce energy consumption. We are registering great interest worldwide in converting existing machines to electric heating, investing in heat recovery or in other forms of energy saving. This is not only cost saving in the long run, but also a way to reduce the CO2 footprint as soon as sufficient green energy is available. For almost all existing plants, such a conversion is possible after a thorough assessment. Most plants can then continue to operate as hybrid machines, i.e. they use gas/oil/steam as before, and can be heated with electricity as an alternative or backup. As a medium-sized company we are used to thinking in the long term. The strong fluctuations in orders in the textile industry are not too much of a surprise either for most machinery manufacturers or for our customers. We work in partnership with our customers and think in the long term, because in addition to the costs, it is always about the experience and expertise that we offer our customers, or they offer their customers and end-users. As a rule, this know-howcannot be transferred to other markets and production sites at short notice. As a partner for our customers, we increasingly offer technological consultation to optimize processes in finishing, especially to reduce costs. However, we urgently recommend that this optimization is carried out across the board, because far too often in our industry people still think in too limited a way. They are hesitant to start comprehensive optimization approaches because they are worried that some processes will then need to be newly certified. Perhaps there is also a fear of change, because the requirements are not known well enough, and it is preferential to work in familiar ways. But when, if not now, will the opportunity occur to implement new methods, alternative processes and new recipes? Often, regulatory requirements also need to be adapted, especially now that the framework conditions are changing on a daily basis. From an entrepreneurial point of view, we must particularly address the following points to the political decision-making bodies: - The approval procedures for new plants/conversions/etc. must be shortened and simplified. The manufacturing industry, especially in Germany, but also in other EU countries, is a guarantor for good and secure jobs. However, citizens in the EU cannot live from services alone. Both the German machinery building and textile industries are global pioneers in terms of energy efficiency and innovation. We must maintain this status in the future. - The Textile Strategy proclaimed by the EU is groundbreaking: however, it must be adhered to by all, including those who import textiles into the EU. The aim is to make textile production worldwide more sustainable, cleaner and more efficient, and we must all work on this for the sake of future generations. The textile industry has been growing for years due to the increasing number of people and rising prosperity. In the EU, the growth of the past is based mainly on new areas of application, especially in the field of technical textiles. Textiles are lighter and cheaper than many other materials, without textiles our life would be less colorful, less cozy, less comfortable and much louder. We should therefore use and appreciate the advantages of the material, even if the costs for it increase slightly. However, above all we also need training, research and jobs in the field of textile production in Germany and Europe in the future! We therefore foresee a positive future of textile production and look forward to new ideas and developments that we can tackle with our customers – especially now!!! The energy crisis and its impact on our industry Regina Brückner & Axel Pieper Managing Associates Brückner Trockentechnik GmbH & Co. KG Leonberg/Germany

CONTENTS 210 melliand International 5/2022 5 melliand International Worldwide Textile Journal October 2022 Volume 28 Fibers/Yarns 224 IR-marked sewing and embroidery yarns for protection against forgery K. Schäfer, V. Yavuz, P. Kreis et al. 228 Metallization of polyimide materials for usage in aerospace T. Onggar, T. Tüfek et al. 231 BCF polyester carpet yarn continues to gain ground worldwide N. Lehmann-Matthaei Spinning 232 Optimizing draw frame performance (Rieter) Leader 209 The energy crisis and its impact on our industry R. Brückner, A. Pieper Industry News 212, 214 Fiber news (DNFI, Spinnova, USDA) 212, 222 Company finances (Delta Galil, Lenzing) 212, 213 Current partnerships (STFI/SENAI/ISI B&F, The Lycra Company/Qore) 213, 222 Conference and exhibitions news (Dornbirn GFC, Int. Congress of IFKT, Performance Days) 214, 215, 218, 220, 222, 223 Industry and company news (Euratex, Fact.MR, Freudenberg Performance Materials Apparel, ITMF, Kolon, Lectra, Milliken, Rieter) 216 55 years of testing, certifying, accreditation and notification (OETI) 217 Sorting for circularity of textiles (Fashion for good) 220 Paving the way for sustainable fashion in Ethiopia (Dow)

melliand International 5/2022 211 CONTENTS 244 Smart color textiles — intelligent textiles that change their color C. Schaude et al. Textile Industry 246 Machine learning and decentralized production networks for sustainable textile production K. Müller 248 Circular fashion to keep Earth clean A. Chakrabarti et al. 250 Data-driven quality management — quality is good, modeling is better R. Kins et al. 251 Green materials from Portugal (ATP) 252 Challenges of traceability and raw material quality (International Cotton Conference) 218, 220, 222, 243 Management 230, 232, 247 New books 195 Calendar (in German part) 251 Company index 251 Imprint 233 Building complete monitoring with reliable weighing technology F. Riva, M. Brown 234 Characteristics of PET/CF blended yarn spun on ring, single nozzle and double nozzle air-jet technology M.S. Kulkarni, U.J. Patil Weaving 237 Using 3D weaving for additive manufacturing of ceramic preforms S. Grosch, F. Ficker Knitting 241 High-tech knitting for surgery (Comez) Textile Finishing 242 Low and ultra-low liquor technology in modern batch dyeing — challenges K.-D. Maurer

INDUSTRY NEWS 212 melliand International 5/2022 The further course of the 2022 financial year can only be estimated to a limited extent due to the extremely low visibility on the demand side and the high volatility of energy and raw material costs. The war in Ukraine, China’s zero-covid policy and the substantial rise in inflation have had a significant impact on the global economy. The International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, DC/USA, lowered its growth expectations for the current calendar year to 3.2% in July 2022. This drastically deteriorated market environment is also increasingly burdening the consumer climate as well as the sentiment in the industries relevant to Lenzing. Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, has suspended its guidance for the development of earnings in the 2022 financial year in view of the drastic deterioration of the market environment in the current quarter (Q3/2022). Based on current assumptions for energy and raw material costs, the company also sees the achievement of its medium-term guidance for 2024 at risk. In light of the current distortions in the energy and raw material markets and their impact on consumer climate, Lenzing sees itself confirmed in its long-term corporate strategy and will continue to drive specialty fiber growth and the implementation of its climate and sustainability goals, including the transformation to a circular economy model. Lenzing 2022 guidance suspended due to energy and raw material markets To enable large-scale commercial production of bio-derived elastane (spandex) using Qira, the next generation 1,4-butanediol (BDO), as one of its main ingredients, The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, has entered into an agreement with Qore LLC, South Bend, IN/USA. This will result in 70% of the Lycra elastane fiber content being derived from annually renewable feedstock. This change could potentially reduce the carbon footprint of Lycra fiber by up to 44% versus equivalent product made from fossil-based resources, while maintaining the same highquality performance parameters. Qira will be produced in Eddyville, IA/USA, at the biotechnology campus and corn refining operation of Cargill Inc., Wayzata, MN/USA. The facility, which is currently being built, will commence operations in 2024. The first renewable Lycra fiber made with Qira will be produced at The Lycra Company’s Tuas/Singapore manufacturing site in 2024. The first generation of renewable Lycra fiber made with Qira will use feedstock from field corn grown by farmers in Iowa/ USA and will enable a significant reduction in CO2 footprint. In addition to replacing a finite resource with an annually renewable one, another benefit for mills, brands and retailers is that there is no change in fiber performance, eliminating the need for any re-engineering of fabrics, patterns, or processes. Equivalent performance was demonstrated in 2014 when the world’s first bio-derived elastane was launched under the Lycra brand. The Lycra Company has since been granted a patent for the process used to make renewable elastane from bio-derived BDO. The Lycra Company Collaboration for next-gen bio-derived fiber at scale USDA Cotton production stable in China In 2022/23 cotton production in China is forecasted at 5.99 million tons (+2%) despite high temperatures in June and July. Yield is forecast at 1,901 kg/ha, slightly up from the previous year and up approximately 5% from the 5-year average. Approx. 85% of total China cotton is produced in Xinjiang province and the remainder in the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins, commonly known as the North China Plains. These figures were presented in the latest survey by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Washington, DC/USA. Spinnova Grant for fiber development work Spinnova Oy, Jyväskylä/Finland, has received a grant of a maximum of € 1.6 million for its research and development work from Business Finland for the time period October 1, 2022-December 31, 2024. The grant amount represents 50% of the project’s total cost estimate of € 3.2 million. The development project focuses on the follow-up research of Spinnova technology and fiber, targeting fiber utilization in new application areas and product segments such as composites and nonwovens. For example, the project includes continuous natural filament development, which allows Spinnova to be used in new types of textile products and to explore the composite segment. In addition, the project includes development of scalable environmentally friendly dope-dye technology where the raw material of Spinnova fiber is dyed already before yarn production. Compared to conventional dyeing, the dope-dye method significantly reduces the use of water, energy and chemicals. The utilization of non-toxic natural dyes in textile dyeing is also being explored in the project. The grant is part of the European Union’s NextGenerationEU financing and Finland’s Bio & Circular Finland sustainable growth program. During its whole lifecycle, the project must meet the DNSH (Do No Significant Harm) requirements and environmental and digital criteria presented in the funding application. Business Finland’s financing speeds up and expands the project by improving its business potential and allows more risk taking in the content of the project. The grant contributes to the growth plan of Spinnova. Established in 2015, the company is ramping up its global commercialization phase. The first commercial-scale factory of Spinnova’s joint venture company Woodspin is expected to be completed in Finland at the end of 2022. Spinnova aims to scale the production of sustainable Spinnova fiber to 1 million tons by 2031-2033.

melliand International 5/2022 213 INDUSTRY NEWS BECAUSE QUALITY NEVER GOES OUT OF FASHION Trends come and go. We at KERN-LIEBERS Textile follow just the one: The development of cutting-edge solutions for reliably functioning textile machines. For this, the right expertise and a constant drive to set new technological XYFSIFWIX FWJ WJVZNWJI 9MNX NX \MFY IJ ܪ SJX ZX 9MNX NX what makes us a strong partner. With 557 participants from more than 30 countries, the Dornbirn Global Fibers Congress (GFC) 2022 was a great success after a 2-year pandemic-related break. From September 14-16, 2022, in Dornbirn/Austria visitors and speakers were able to expand their network to push forward the necessary developments. The presentations were made on the topics of fiber innovations, sustainability, circular economy and recycling, smart functional surface, nonwovens, and apparel and sports. Keynote speakers on the Opening Day were Board Members of Lenzing and Indorama, the biggest global players in the fiber industry, the CEO of Paboco, one of the most innovative companies in the packaging industry and a highly reputated professor from Oxford University opened the congress. Further, top companies from the digital sector, like ServiceNow and PwC showed how they will support the industry for a sustainable future. Due to the challenges of the last years, caused by the corona virus, the organizers of the congress were able to really learn a lot. This year the needs of the visitors were covered through networking at the event live in person and online on demand access for visitors with limited mobility. With this future model, the Dornbirn GFC will be prepared for new challenges. Dornbirn GFC online on demand, offered until October 2, 2022, showed the opening of the Dornbirn GFC 2022, the awarding of the Paul Schlack Prize, CEO panel with keynote speakers, 100 expert lectures from industry, universities and research institutes, discussion session with the speakers and the exhibition area. Paul Schlack/Wilhelm Albrecht Prize 2022 The Paul Schlack/Wilhelm Albrecht Prize 2022 was this year awarded to Dr. Robert Tonndorf from the Institute of Textile Machinery and High Performance Material Technology (ITM) at the TU Dresden/Germany, for his project “Development of manufacturing technologies for the production of biomimetic fiber-based scaffolds from collagen for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine”. The honorary prize was awarded to Leonie Reinders from the German Institutes of Textile and Fiber Research Denkendorf (DITF), Denkendorf/Germany, for her project “Development of novel oxide ceramic fibers for high-temperature applications”. The award ceremony was organized and conducted by Frédéric van Houte of the European Man-Made Fibers Association (CIRFS), Brussels/Belgium. The 62nd Dornbirn GFC Global Fiber Congress will take place in Dornbirn from September 13-15, 2023. Dornbirn GFC After 2 years again in-person with high international participation

INDUSTRY NEWS Automation and Vision Systems ELSMART Web guiding system ƒ Precise web guiding for carpet and technical textiles ƒ Web center guiding with wide band sensors ƒ Web edge guiding with infrared and ultrasonic edge sensors ƒ Much more compact application than with pivoting frame Erhardt+Leimer GmbH · Albert-Leimer-Platz 1 · 86391 Stadtbergen · Germany · Phone: +49 (0)821 2435-0 Based on latest figures from the Discover Natural Fibres Initiative (DNFI), world natural fiber production in 2022 is estimated at 32.6 million tons. Production reached 33.3 million tons in 2021 and 31.6 million in 2020. A drought in Texas where over half of cotton produced in the USA is grown, and flooding in Pakistan, the 5th largest cotton producer, account for the decline, according to the International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC), Washington, DC/USA. World production of jute and allied fibers is estimated unchanged at 3.2 million tons in 2022 compared with 2021. High market prices in 2021 motivated farmers to expand planted area in both Bangladesh and India, but dry weather during June and July will limit yields per hectare. Normal monsoon rains resumed in South Asia during August, too late for the 2022 jute crop. Production of coir fiber rose by an average of 18,000 tons/year during the past decade, and production was at a record high of 1.12 million tons in 2021. Production is expected to remain high in 2022. Flax has also been trending upward, rising by an average of 27,000 tons/year, and production in 2022 is estimated to remain above 1 million tons. As of the end of August, Freightos Ltd., Cayman Islands, quoted the cost of moving a 40 ft. container from the USA West Coast to East Asia at US$ 793, compared with $ 1,020 in March 2022. Nevertheless, average freight costs on back-haul routes used by natural fibers remain approximately triple their pre-covid levels. DNFI World natural fiber update The 15th ITMF Corona-Survey, conducted by the International Textile Manufacturers Federation (ITMF), Zurich/Switzerland, shows that the business situation plunged into negative territory in July 2022. The business situation is worse in Asia than in the rest of the world. Textile machinery is the only segment still in positive territory. Business expectations have also turned negative for the first time since the start of survey in May 2021. South-East Asia and South America are relatively more optimistic, downstream segments as well. Order intake is weakening globally but is still in positive territory. Here too, expectations have turned negative in all textile segments except for textile machinery producers. Order intake is deteriorating in all Asian regions and stable in North America, South America, and Africa. Order backlog has been slightly decreasing in the past few months, from a maximum of 3.1 months in March 2022 to 2.9 months in July 2022. It is expected to continue falling until March 2023. Capacity utilization rate has been stagnating since the beginning of 2022, on average. This indicator is rising in Africa and North and Central America. South Asia reports a strong decrease in capacity utilization, so do fiber and home textile producers as well as spinners. While high prices for raw materials, energy, and logistics are still regarded as major supply side concerns, they have somewhat eased compared to May 2022. The prospects of weakening demand caused by surging inflation are worrisome. ITMF Business situation again turned negative Business situation (World) (Source: ITMF)