Man-made Fiber Year Book 2022

ON W LINE E ARE Our digital content home! Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 Published by Chemical Fibers International October 2022

Everything under one umbrella: TextileTechnology– your umbrella brand for specialist information from all over the world on the topics relating to the textile industry Print and online, each specifically for the sub market-sectors in proven quality: Chemical Fibers International, Technical Textiles / Technische Textilien, melliand International / melliand Textilberichte, nonwovensTrends Moving together with the global textile industry into the future Your TextileTechnology Team TextileTechnology · Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH Mainzer Landstr. 251 60326 Frankfurt amMain / Germany +49 69 7595-2563

Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 1 LEADER More than 50 years ago, humanity’s demand for ecological resources first exceeded Earth’s ability to regenerate them in the same year. Since then, the date of ‘Earth Overshoot Day’ has been steadily narrowing. This year, it fell on July 28. 2022 has been challenging in other ways, too. We face record inflation and increasingly fragmented political landscapes, including a destabilizing war in Europe. While the world’s youth seemingly campaign every Friday for better climate protection, voices are growing louder that the world’s economies are close to reaching their growth limits. Our man-made fibers industry has already been on a journey towards more sustainable solutions for many years, and will continue for years to come. I believe we can sustain economic growth if we finally build truly circular business models. Innovation – fast in scaling, open to partnering: Innovation is at the core of this transformation – fast in scaling, open to partnering, and with many more than products. What does this mean for our industry? In recent years, we have started to move beyond seeing each other as individual competitors only. While we will always try to take market share from each other, we are already moving towards a more collaborative mindset in areas that are too big for any of us to solve on our own. Burning issues like decarbonizing our operations, finding alternatives to fossil-based feedstock, and addressing concerns about microplastics are challenging enough to warrant a more cooperative industry-led approach to finding solutions. We are gradually working together more cohesively – not only amongst ourselves, but also with customers, start-ups, tech firms, legislators, and various experts across our value chain. As a result, our industry is working towards recycling products such as mattresses. We are also enabling design for recycling through substituting with thermoplastic binders, exploring biotransformation technologies that leave no microplastic or toxic residues in the environment, and using more bio-based polymers. With unpredictable energy prices and prolonged supply chain disruptions, we need to equip ourselves with better systems and tools. Gone are the days when extrapolating last year’s plan was enough to calculate the next one. A traditional industry like ours is overdue for smarter, more agile planning cycles and innovative digital solutions that provide early warnings. This also applies to our ability to predict emerging trends and related end-consumers’ needs. Even though, for instance, consumers’ sensitivity regarding health-related issues has always been around, the Covid-19 pandemic has heightened this. Consumers have also become increasingly conscious about a more sustainable way of living – car sharing and e-mobility, for example, are here to stay. The business intelligence that comes from our industry’s consumer base is enormous, and we should all listen more intensely to customers, and consumers more broadly. Different way of thinking and working: What does it take for our industry to tackle these challenges? To me, it needs a very different way of working that is slowly starting to happen but needs further thought. As an industry, we will succeed in building fully circular business models when our collaboration and partnerships consider all our combined stakeholders – not just shareholders as we have been prone to do in the past. We will succeed when digitalized ways of working are routine at all levels of our organizations and decisions are based on forward-looking data rather than on past experiences. We will succeed when we invest equally in advanced systems, tools and technologies as well as in our people. That is the only way our workforce will keep pace with a fast-moving environment, and we will attract new talent. This requires enormous leadership and change management capabilities. No single approach will solve them all, and inevitably we will fail sometimes. Time is ticking. Our man-made fibers industry is moving in the right direction, but we certainly need to speed up. Circularity is where the untapped, long-term business opportunity lies. And it is where customers’ trust is too. It is where we, as an industry, can help move the date of ‘Earth Overshoot Day’ back. Boosting different ways of thinking and working Christopher Kenneally Executive President Fibers Indorama Ventures PCL Bangkok/Thailand

2 Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 CONTENTS Leader 1 Boosting different ways of thinking and working C. Kenneally Industry News Review 4, 5, 16 Raw material news (Asahi Kasei, Aquafil, Hengli, Hengyi Petrochemical, Sulzer Chemtech, Toray) 4, 6-11, 24, 25, 34 Fiber news (Advansa, HeiQ Materials, Hyosung, Hypetex, IFC, IFG, Lenzing, Norratex, RadiciGroup, Renewcell, Teijin, The Lycra Company, Toray, Universal Fibers, Verdex) 8-10, 14, 16 Current acquisitions; cooperations; joint ventures (Archroma/Huntsman Textile Effects, Compass Diversified/PrimaLoft, Kairos Industries/Dolan, Perlon/Nowo Products, AVA Biochem/Sulzer Chemtech, Trützschler/Texnology, Spinnova/Suzano) 9 Fiber production news (Mondi Ascania) 8, 11-14, 50, 57 Recycling news (Andritz, Apply Carbon, Carbios/IVL, Eastman, Honeywell UOP, Michelin, Natural Fiber Welding, Teijin Aramid, Thai Acrylic, The Lycra Company) 10 Microbial weaving process (Modern Synthesis) Fiber Raw Material 15 MEG: global overcapacity, regional tightness — and next? J. Rivera 16 Bioplastics production technology for NatureWorks’ plant (Sulzer Chemtech) Fibers 17 Regenerated cellulose fibers — great potential for sustainable and tough fiber-reinforced composites N. Graupner, J. Müssig, T. Huber 21 Microbially produced silk fibers with high strength (Washington University) 22 Is there still a future for polymer-based fibers for textile applications post COP26? H. Christiaen 26 Polyester vs. natural fibers (Natural Fiber Welding) 27 Novel spider silk fibers for nerve healing (University of Bayreuth) 28 Development of glass fiber/PET hybrid yarn for thermoplastic composites M.E. Heper 30 Polyethylene vs. para-aramid fibers P.J. Lemstra, B.J. Lommerts Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 Published by Chemical Fibers International October 2022

Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 3 CONTENTS 35 Carbon nanofibers to drive hydrogen fuel cell developments (Grupo Antolin) 36 Liquid glycerol core fibers (Empa) 37 CarboBreak — releasing alveolar fibrous carbon fiber fragments D. Kehren, A. Große, N. Klemm-Zhao Fiber Production 38 False-twist shaft texturing machine (SSM) 39 Property optimization of PAN-fibers based on improved air-gap spinning technology F.-G. Niemz 42 Modification of PLA by reactive extrusion for industrial fiber applications C. Brugstaller, S. Riepler 44 Innovative systems concept for HT yarns R. Dolmans 46 Impact of draw ratio and winder speed on fiber properties of PET FDY R. Turukmane et al. 48 Temperature control in filament production (Retech) 49 MultiMode: a research 4.0 approach for the development of high-performance fibers S. Müller-Probandt, J.C. Rodriguez Recycling / Circular Economy 51 PEF — from polymer to product T. Höhnemann et al. 54 Wood-based cellulose fibers in view of Single-Use Plastics Directive A. Russler 55 A versatile approach to textile recycling and to handle feedstock heterogeneity in a circular economy M.S. Sebastiá Nonwovens 58 Nonwovens made from blends of banana/polypropylene fibers N.B. Timble 60 Use of artificial intelligence at SMEs in the nonwovens industry R. Kins et al. 61 Investment in meltblown capacity (Neenah) 62 New approach to the meltblown-paradox C. Bruns, A. Nickel Inner back cover Imprint Inner back cover Company index

4 Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 INDUSTRY NEWS REVIEW Hyosung TNC has launched a bio-based elastane fiber which is extracted fromcorn. Utilizing a natural resource sourced from maize rather than coal, a bio-derived elastane, Creora Bio-Based, has been created and received a worldwide eco-friendly certification. According to Hyosung, this elastane saves carbon emissions by 23% compared to conventional goods. The US Department of Agriculture awarded the chemical developed from maize with an eco-friendly certification, which is used to partially replace raw materials originating from coal in the Creora BioBased fiber manufactured by Hyosung TNC, Seoul/South Korea. Corn-derived materials have already been used for fibers, wrapping paper, cosmetics, and liquid detergents for a long time, but not for high-functional textiles since it is not technologically viable to give distinctive elasticity and durability. For the first time, after research and development have been made for more than a year, Hyosung TNC claims to have successfully commercialized a bio-based elastane for the first time in the world. In comparison to conventional elastane goods, Creora Bio-Based can reduce water usage by 39% and carbon dioxide emissions by 23%, according to the Life Cycle Assessment, a tool for evaluating environmental effects based on international standards. In June 2022, the SGS (previously Société Générale de Surveillance) awarded the Creora Bio-Based the Eco Product Mark, a global eco-friendly certification. The Eco Product Mark is given that used ecofriendly raw materials, harmless to human body and produced in eco-friendly methods through ESG-oriented management. Global demand for eco-friendly biomaterials is increasing as a result of adoption of the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). The European Union recently announced that this would be fully implemented in 2025. Hyosung TNC Bio-based elastane fiber Genomatica and Aquafil successfully completed the first demonstration scale production runs for plant-based polyamide 6 (PA 6). The material is intended to reshape the US$ 22 billion PA industry, enabling brands to meet demand from consumers for sustainable everyday materials from apparel to automotive parts to carpets. Biotechnology company Genomatica Inc., San Diego, CA/USA, and fiber manufacturer Aquafil SpA, Arco/Italy, have produced the first several tons of plant-based PA 6 building block caprolactam, have converted it to PA 6 polymer, and are now in the process of transforming it for evaluation in applications such as yarns for textile and carpet and engineering plastics as part of pre-commercial quantities from demonstration production taking place in Europe. The material will go to leading global brands and their value chain partners who are eager to explore and develop renewable products, create showcase goods and test feedback with customers. Genomatica and Aquafil start-up precommercial production of plant-based PA intermediate at the new demonstration plant located at Aquafil Slovenia. Plantbased PA 6 is Genomatica’s 3rd major product line on a path to commercialization. The company has executed high imAquafil Start of commercial plant-based PA 6 production pact deals with a range of brands to accelerate the global commercialization of sustainable materials, with the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 100 million tons in upcoming years. Recent milestones advancing the sustainable materials transition include: a collaboration with lululemon Inc. (Canada) to bring plant-based materials into lululemon’s products, a production milestone with partner Covestro AG (Germany) for plant-based HMD used in sustainable coatings, and a partnership with Asahi Kasei Corp. (Japan) and a newly formed venture with Unilever plc (UK) to commercialize and scale plant-based alternatives to feedstock like palm oil or fossil fuels, to make key ingredients used in everyday cleaning and personal care products. (Source: Hyosung) Toray From sugar to bio-based PA 66 A 100% bio-based adipic acid from sugars has now been developed as a raw material for PA 66, from sugars derived from inedible biomass. This achievement came from using a synthesis technique of Toray combining the company’s microbial fermentation technology and chemical purification technology that harnesses separation membranes. Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo/Japan, has started to scale up its capabilities in this area. It will test polymerization of PA 66, develop production technology, conduct market research, and take steps to commercialize applications for this bio-based adipic acid by around 2030. One challenge is that conventional chemical synthesis for producing adipic acid generates a greenhouse gas called dinitrogen monoxide. Toray discovered microorganisms that produce an adipic acid intermediate from sugars. The company reconfigured metabolic pathways within micro-organisms to enhance production efficiency by applying genetic engineering technology, which artificially recombines genes to streamline synthesis in microorganisms. It also employed bioinformatics technologies to design optimal microbial fermentation pathways for synthesis. Quantity of the intermediate synthesized by micro-organisms has increased more than 1,000-fold since the initial discovery.

INDUSTRY NEWS REVIEW Where energies make tomorrow Polycondensation plants for biodegradable plastics Leading global supplier of technology, engineering and equipment for complete plants to produce PBAT, PBS and PBSA Our services: y Proven patented technology and recipes for superior polymer quality y Feasibility studies and pilot plant trials y Basic engineering and FEED packages y Detail Engineering and equipment supply y Technical Assistance Services for Commissioning and Start-up y Technology development for third parties KȲ 3ʀbÖèèÉúʀ èÀ! Friesstr. 20 60388 Frankfurt am Main In September 2021, Hengli Petrochemical Co., Ltd. held a grand opening ceremony in the Hengli (Dalian Changxing Island) Industrial Park for its 450,000 tons/year biodegradable new materials project. The project with a total investment of 1.8 billion yuan adopts independent research and development process technologies, and relies on the industrial park’s raw materials and supporting advantages. The project consists mainly on the construction of a 150,000 tons/ year PBS and a 300,000 tons/ year PBAT biodegradable plastics plant. At present, PBS and PBAT are recognized as the best comprehensive biodegradable materials in the world, and they are also the most widely used varieties of biodegradable plastics. The environmentally friendly polyester material can be degraded into carbon dioxide and water in the natural covering environment through the action of micro-organisms. At the end of 2020, Hengli reported the successful start-up of its PBS-type biodegradable polyester new material project with an annual production of 33,000 tons, marking Hengli's formal entry into the field of biodegradable polyester new materials. The new project started is scheduled to be completed and put into production in 2022. It will become the largest and most productive biodegradable new material base in China. Hengli Large investment in biodegradable polymers The petrochemical and chemical fiber manufacturer, Hengyi Petrochemical Co. Ltd., Beihai/China, will expand a caprolactam-polyamide 6 (PA6) vertical integration plant with an annual capacity of 1.2 million tons through its subsidiary Guangxi Hengyi New Material. This expansion is scheduled to be completed in 2 rounds, and the company plans first to complete an expansion of 600,000 tons/year. PA6 produced at the new plant is expected to be produced in various products such as highstrength polyamide fibers, engineering plastics, and films. The main production processes of caprolactam include Liquid Phase Backmann Rearrangement and Gas Phase Backmann Rearrangement. This process has less carbon emission and better production efficiency, and does not generate harmful by-products to the environment including ammonium sulfate. Hengyi has independently researched and developed the Gas Phase Backmann Rearrangement technology, and it is expected that the technology will be applied to new plants in the future. Currently, Sumitomo Group, Kyoto/ Japan, is the only company in the world producing caprolactam by applying Gas Phase Backmann Rearrangement technology to the production processwith an annual production capacity of 160,000 tons of caprolactam. Hengyi Petrochemical Expansion of caprolactampolyamide 6 production

6 Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 INDUSTRY NEWS REVIEW The Lenzing Group has successfully completed its key lyocell expansion project in Thailand. The new plant, the largest of its kind in the world with a capacity of 100,000 tons/year, started production on schedule and will help to better meet the increasing customer demand for Tencel branded lyocell fibers. The construction of the plant in Prachinburi/Thailand, around 150 km northeast of Bangkok, started in H2/2019 and proceeded largely according to plan, despite the challenges arising from the Covid-19 pandemic. Investments amounted to approx. € 400 million. Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, will continue to expand its production capacity for lyocell fibers in line with its sCore Ten strategy, which aims to generate 75% of its fiber revenue from eco-responsible specialty fibers such as Tencel, Lenzing, Ecovero and Veocel fibers by 2024. The Thailand site offers space for several production lines. The investment in the first phase already includes general infrastructure that would benefit future expansion. However, the company will continue to look for opportunities to expand lyocell production in other parts of the world too. Together with the key project in Brazil and the substantial investments at the existing sites in Asia, Lenzing is currently implementing the largest investment program in its corporate history with more than € 1.5 billion. Lenzing Start of new lyocell plant in Thailand On the basis of strong customer interest for Renewcell’s unique 100% recycled product Circulose, the company has decided to initiate an expansion of its Renewcell 1 plant in Ortviken/Sweden from 60,000 to 120,000 tons of total annual capacity ahead of plan. The decision does not affect the commissioning planned for mid-2022 for the initial 60,000 tons. The Board has also decided to review the company’s operational and financial goals, evaluating the opportunity to bring forward the operational goal of reaching 360,000 tons of annual capacity to 2025 from 2030 as was originally planned. The Board will also consider how much to increase the long-term operational goal in order to strengthen the market leading position of Renewcell, Stockholm/Sweden. The large and rapidly growing impact of virgin textile fiber production and fashion waste has become a focus for consumers, NGOs, regulators, fashion brands, manufacturers and ESG investors worldwide. New market research developed by Renewcell forecasts that the baseline fashion industry demand for recycled manmade cellulosic fibers of the kind made from Circulose, Renewcell’s unique 100% recycled dissolving pulp, will amount to around 6 million tons annually in 2030. With just 0.7 million tons of annual supply capacity, including the 360,000 tons from Renewcell, forecast to come online until then, the industry will need to rely on speeding up the scaling of “sustaintech” innovators like Renewcell to close the gap and make fashion circular. Renewcell Early capacity expansion and review of operational goals The Lycra Company New equity ownership A group of financial institutions, comprising Lindeman Asia, Lindeman Partners Asset Management, Tor Investment Management, and China Everbright Limited (“New Shareholders”), have gained full equity control of The Lycra Company. The current management team of The Lycra Company will continue to run the business under the new owners. Julien Born will continue to serve as CEO. Julien Born, CEO of The Lycra Company The change of equity control follows the conclusion of the receivership process that started in February when the New Shareholders initiated an enforcement action against Ruyi Textile and Fashion International Group Limited, the former parent of The Lycra Company, for loan defaults associated with its purchase of The Lycra Company in January 2019. The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, innovates and produces fiber and technology solutions for the apparel and personal care industries. With its new ownership and governance in place, The Lycra Company will continue to focus on accelerating the implementation of its vision, including sustainable solutions that advance circularity, strategic technology partnerships to develop and scale up a wider range of innovative materials, and ongoing digital transformation initiatives. This is fully supported by the new shareholders who have a proven track record of financing and investing in companies across Asia and globally and working with Boards of Directors on business and operational plans to enhance long-term value creation. The new shareholders are committed to further helping The Lycra Company strengthen its financial position and enable its long-term growth.

Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 7 INDUSTRY NEWS REVIEW DURON INTELLIGENT MOISTURE MANAGEMENT From beginning on DURON spin finishes stand for comfort and security. Nonwovens treated with DURON absorb liquids and transport them to the destined areas. Thus they are crucially responsible for a “comfort feeling”. They remain impermeable where necessary and give a secure feeling – from initial contact. More about us at An eco-friendly staple polyester (PET) nanofiber that offers very good performance to reinforce rubber uses has been developed by Teijin Frontier. The company will continue to expand the types of polymers that can be used for the new staple nanofibers and continue to develop them for a wide range of rubber and resin products such as tires, hoses and belts. It will also promote the development of products that utilize recycled raw materials with the aim of reducing the environmental burden. The new staple nanofiber incorporates both PET nanofiber and polyethylene (PE) polymers, which are combined in proprietary sea-island composite cross-section from Teijin Frontier Co., Ltd., Tokyo/Japan. A PET nanofiber with a diameter of either 400 nm or 700 nm is used as the “island” as reinforcing material and the surrounding “sea” part is made with PE, which mixes easily with rubber. Compared to conventional products, mixing takes place at the molecular level, which enables thousands of times more nanofibers to be evenly dispersed in the rubber for equal or better reinforcing but requiring a relatively small amount. Teijin Frontier has also developed a proprietary system for calculating CO2 emissions generated by the company’s PET fiber production processes. It eventually expects to use the system for full lifecycle assessments of its polyester fiber products. The new system calculates CO2 emissions based on data from the company’s manufacturing bases. It also compares differences in emissions between petroleum-derived fibers and recycled fibers to quantitatively evaluate the effect. The system additionally helps to clarify which processes need to be improved to further reduce environmental loads and better measures for reducing CO2 emissions can be considered. The system is already being used to evaluate emissions from PET filaments and staple fibers production, and the scope will gradually be expanded to include woven and dyed textiles products. Teijin Frontier also plans to encourage partners to adopt the system. Teijin Frontier New PET staple nanofiber and CO2 calculator for PET IFC First commercial-scale Infinna fiber factory With an investment of around € 400 million, Infinited Fiber Company Oy (IFC), Espoo/Finland, plans to build a commercial-scale factory to produce regenerated textile fiber at the site of renewable materials company Stora Enso’s closed Veitsiluoto paper mill in Kemi/Finland. It is expected to create around 270 jobs in the area. The annual fiber production capacity of the planned factory is expected to be 30,000 tons, which is equivalent to the fiber needed for about 100 million T-shirts. IFCs technology enables cotton-rich textile waste to be transformed into a versatile, high-quality regenerated textile fiber called Infinna, which looks and feels like cotton. Major international fashion and apparel companies – including Inditex, PVH Europe, Patagonia, H&M Group and Bestseller – have already committed to Infinna purchases through multi-year agreements as they look for materials that enable the industry to shift towards circularity.

8 Man-Made Fiber Year Book 2022 INDUSTRY NEWS REVIEW No. 1 on Regenerated Cellulosics The world’s first manufacturer of colored carbon fiber, Hypetex Ltd., London/UK, has attracted £ 1.25 million in new equity investment and welcomes 2 experienced business leaders as both investors and advisers to the company. The investment is the latest round of the company’s seed funding which will support ambitious growth plans and help scale the business’s footprint. The technology from Hypetex enables the sustainable colorization of advanced materials whilst maintaining and often improving their performance properties. Using a water-based resin system and a low-energy curing process, the finished colored composite materials can be used in a range of products, removing the need for any addition of paint whilst offering both cost-saving and built-in aesthetic improvements. Applications range from consumer electronics, aerospace, yachting and lifestyle products to automotive design and Formula One. Hypetex £1.25 million investment for colored carbon fiber As part of the new investment, Neil MacDougall, an experienced private equity and angel investor, has been appointed Chairman of the Board for Hypetex. He brings with him a large amount of experience having successfully run a pan-European private equity fund for 15 years and chaired the British Private Equity &Venture Capital Association, London, from 2020 to 2021, and is a director of the UK Business Angels Association, London. Joining him as an advisor to the Board is Nick Rose, whose previous roles include CFO of Diageo plc., London, Chairman of Williams Grand Prix Holdings Plc. Wantage/UK, and Board Member at BAE Systems plc, Franborough/UK. The appointments further strengthen the management structure for the organization. MacDougall and Rose will work alongside CEO Marc Cohen and Chief Technology Officer Nigel Dunlea as they continue to expand the company’s international footprint. Teijin Aramid BV, Arnhem/Netherlands, has joined forces with Clariter, Warsaw/ Poland, and pioneered a sustainable solution in chemical advanced recycling for Endumax, an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Together the companies are developing a sustainable disposal method for highly valuable, postproduction and end of life material that is hard to recycle mechanically. The innovative technology from Clariter transforms potential plastic waste into high-value, pure industrial products with a net negative carbon footprint, which means it cleans the environment rather than pollutes it. Tests of UHMWPE Endumax feedstock from Teijin Aramid were carried out at Clariter’s operational pilot plant in Gliwice/Poland. The results determined that samples of fishing nets, ropes and air cargo containers are indeed suitable for chemical recycling. High resistance UHMWPE, which was once problematic to recycle, has been now successfully upcycled into feedstock as pure, crude-free industrial products with a multitude of applications such as cleaning agents, paints, and specialty wax. Teijin Aramid Carbon neutral solution for recycling Trützschler Partnership with Texnology In the field of needle-punching technology Trützschler Nonwovens &Man-Made Fibers GmbH, Egelsbach/Germany, started a cooperation with the Italian textile machinery manufacturer Texnology Srl, Fontaniva/Italy. With immediate effect, the companies will offer complete production lines for needle-punched nonwovens under the name of T-Suprema. Web bonding with steel needles represent the largest production process in the drylaid nonwovens segment. The areas of application are predominantly of a technical nature, with the largest applications being durable geotextiles, automotive textiles and filter media. The high adaptability of the needling and finishing processes as well as the broad material base result in a large number of different end products. Needle-punching is suitable for a wide range of man-made and natural fibers including mineral and high-performance fibers. Trützschler Nonwovens contributes its many years of experience in fiber preparation and web forming to the cooperation. Texnology Srl is mainly responsible for the needle-punching process.