melliand International 4/2022

Worldwide Textile Journal melliand International August 2022 D 5862 E 4 ON W LINE E ARE Our digital content home!

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melliand International 4/2022 157 LEADER Although gender diversity is celebrated in campaigns, and brands promote ‘female empowerment' on International Women’s Day, the textile industry still has a gender equality problem throughout the supply chain. There are approx. 40-60 million garment workers in the world today and millions more in other parts of the supply chain, such as cotton fields and retail stores. The majority of those workers are women, thus representing the backbone of the industry. Although this representation sounds positive, unfortunately, it isn’t. In the majority of cases, garment workers are paid wages that are too low to have a decent living. Their wages are, in Bangladesh’s production companies for example, 8% lower than those of men. They are subject to countless human rights violations and forced to work unpaid overtime in unsafe working conditions. The women behind our clothes face gender-based violence in order to survive and feed their families. Factories often deny their right to maternity leave or childcare, and sexual abuse and harassment in their workplace as well as on their way to work, is commonplace. There are several reasons for these unsafe working conditions. One is the so-called ‘price squeeze’. Brands often look for the lowest prices to produce their garments. Production company owners know that if they do not accept the low price, brands will look for alternatives, meaning other companies. This results in very stressful working conditions with considerable overtime, excessive production targets and violence being used by superiors due to production pressure. Trade unions could give women a voice, but unfortunately, very few garment workers are unionized or part of a social dialogue, so it is hard to defend their basic rights. Furthermore, often, when there is a union, these are led by men. This means women do not have any chance to ensure safer working conditions for workers in the supply chain, protect their rights and negotiate worker benefit. This is a missed opportunity for companies, because the positive effects of diversity and gender-parity in the workplace are known: in an ILO (2019d) survey of companies that track the impact of gender diversity in their management, the majority reported that their profit increases between 5 and 20%. In the garment sector specifically, research found that, following training, women-led production lines in surveyed garment factories experienced an average of 22% increase in productivity. Gender inequalities in the textile industry are mirrored in the corporate sector. Few women are found in management positions in this industry, despite women spending nearly 40% more per year on apparel than men and 85% of graduating students from top fashion schools being female. The result is that only 14% of the top 50 major fashion brands are spearheaded by women. Sadly, the numbers are even going down: the number of incoming female CEOs dropped by 39.3% compared to the year before, and by 23.3% compared with 2019. It looks like the choices of CEO’s have become more conservative. It is important to also have women at the top: female leaders generally better understand workers’ and consumers’ needs and wishes than men, which could translate not only into better working conditions and flexibility, but also into more value for the customer who is becoming increasingly critical. Moreover, female leadership roles in global fashion companies lead to brands being more transparent and having better company culture and higher values. Through providing a safe, comfortable and positive working environment companies can break the stigma around sexual harassment, which is necessary. For the company itself, a positive working environment will of course result in more success in the long run. If we want to change the industry and we want to achieve the sustainable development goals, we need to start caring about gender equality. Research from the United Nation’s International Labour Organization (ILO) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) has demonstrated that when all workers, men and women, are treated fairly and have decent jobs, everyone benefits: the workers themselves, their employers, the industry, and the local and national economies. Good quality jobs will catalyze women’s economic empowerment. They also offer social protection andmeasures to addressworklife balance, and operate in an environment free from discrimination and harassment. The absence of these conditions impedes women’s access to decent jobs. It is time to face and tackle these problems and overcome the challenges put forward. We need a 2-fold approach: governments to take concrete measures to fight inequality and companies willing to contribute to positive change. Only then we can move forward. The gender gap in the textile and clothing industry Tatiana De Wée Consultant Prospex Institute vzw Brussels/Belgium

CONTENTS 158 melliand International 4/2022 4 melliand International Worldwide Textile Journal August 2022 Volume 28 Fibers/Yarns 170 Functional fibers based on recycled PP from home textiles R. Malgueiro, N. Kizildag et al. 172 Impact of draw ratio and winder speed on the fiber properties of PET FDY R. Turukmane, C. Mahajan, K. Patil 174 Comfort properties of different man-made cellulosic fibers R. Nagpure et al. 177 PA fiber helps to keep cool (TTRI) 177 Consortium to advance circularity in the textile industry (Carbios) Spinning 178 Innovative high-speed combing (Trützschler) 179 Ring and rotor spinning of recycled fibers: challenges and recommendations M. Will Leader 157 The gender gap in the textile and clothing industry T. De Wée Industry News 160, 161, 162, 167, 169 Company finances (Lectra, Lenzing, Nextil, Oerlikon, Rieter, Trevira) 160 The Lycra Company: new equity ownership 160, 163, 166, 168, 169, 191 Current acquisitions and partnerships (Archroma/Huntsman Textile Effects, Coats/Texon, IVL/Tollegno, Karl Mayer/YTC technology by Appalachian Electronic Instruments; Archroma/Baldwin, bluesign/SCTI, HeiQ/Renewcell, Trützschler/Texnology) 161, 162 Fiber news (AMSilk, IFC) 164 International textile production costs vary up to 72%(ITMF) 164 Circulating textile waste into value (Euratex) 165 Exhibitions news (Heimtextil, Techtextil, Texprocess) 166 Textile dyes market to expand +6% by 2031 (Fact.MR) 166- Industry news (ACIMIT, Andritz, DyStar, 169 EFI Reggiani, Itema, James Heal, Rudolf)

melliand International 4/2022 159 CONTENTS 194 Acoustic fabric converts audible sounds into electrical signals J. Chu 196 Innovative non-slip and smart mats to increase safety at home — Helpintex L. Rodrigues, M. Midao, F. Oliveira et al. 198 Bionic research: 3D textiles for aerosol separation J. Sarsour et al. 202 Current challenges and solutions for the recycling of (mixed) synthetic textiles A. Becker et al. 204 Blockchain-based platform for recycled materials (Teijin/Fujitsu) 205 New test standards for spacer fabrics I. Bettermann et al. 207 Global textile machinery deliveries higher than pre-pandemic (ITMF) Interview 208 Inspire the change in the textile industry W.A. Schumann 168 , 169, 181, 201 Management 207 Company index / Imprint Weaving 182 Fabrics with transversal auxetic behavior R. Krause, F. Cramer et al. Knitting 185 Global Industry 4.0 approach for process management (DITF) 186 High-performance tricot machine enables new twill stitch fabrics for lingerie and sportswear (Karl Mayer) Textile Finishing 187 Statistical analysis of key application properties of reactive dyes P. Catlow, C. Schumacher, M. Ferus-Comelo 190 Improved protective clothing for welders with nanoparticles L. Kamps J.S. Gutmann, T. Mayer-Gall, T. Textor Textile Industry 189 More energy-efficient ultrasonic welding process (Rinco) 192 Magnetic switch system for highest flexibility — production of braided vascular implants K. Lehmann, M.O. Bräuner

INDUSTRY NEWS 160 melliand International 4/2022 The Lycra Company New equity ownership A group of financial institutions, comprising Lindeman Asia, Lindeman Partners Asset Management, Tor Investment Management, and China Everbright Limited (“New Shareholders”), have gained full equity control of The Lycra Company. The current management team of The Lycra Company will continue to run the business under the new owners. Julien Born will continue to serve as CEO. The Lenzing Group increased sales by 25.2% to € 1.29 billion in the first half (H1) of 2022, primarily due to higher fiber prices. The earnings trend mainly reflects the cost trend in global energy and raw material markets, which affected the whole of manufacturing industry. Energy, raw materials and logistics costs rose sharply once again in the reporting period, after cost pressure had already risen steadily throughout the 2021 financial year. As a consequence, earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) decreased by 13.3% yearon-year to € 188.9 million (H1/2021: € 217.8 million). The strength of the specialty strategy and of brands based on innovation and sustainable activity as well as the continued focus on measures to improve structural earnings in all regions mitigated this negative effect. The EBITDA margin reduced from 21.1 to 14.6% in H1/2022. In March 2022, the new, state-of-the-art lyocell plant in Thailand was opened. The production plant, which is the largest of its kind with a nominal capacity of 100,000 tons/year, was commissioned as planned after 2.5 years of construction, and despite the challenges deriving from the pandemic. The successful implementation of the project will enable Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, to better meet growing customer demand for lyocell fibers, thereby making the global textile and nonwovens industries more sustainable. Lenzing Significant improvement in sales and solid results in H1/2022 The ambition to replace the synthetic fibers polyester and polyamide in textiles has led to Renewcell and HeiQ forming a strategic partnership to manufacture circular HeiQ AeoniQ cellulose filament yarn from Circulose pulp supplied by Renewcell. This partnership enables the incorporation of recycled raw materials in a modern and environmentally friendly yarn production process that facilitates 100% circularity in the textile industry. Capitalizing on their shared vision of a circular and bio-based textile industry, HeiQ Materials AG, Zurich/Switzerland and Renewcell, Stockholm/Sweden, have joined forces to commercialize 100%circular and bio-based high-tenacity filament yarns as a viable replacement for fossil-based fibers like polyamide and polyester at scale. Promising results in initial tests using Circulose as a feedstock for production of HeiQ AeoniQ yarn create an opportunity for collaboration between the partners in their effort to lead the current textile industry transformation, positioning both companies and Europe as a pioneer region incorporating recycled rawmaterials in the most modern and environmentally friendly yarn production processes that allow true circularity in the textile industry. Circulose is a branded dissolving pulp product that Renewcell makes from 100% textile waste, such as worn-out jeans and production scraps. Dissolving pulp cellulose is what the textile industry uses to make viscose, lyocell, modal, acetate other types of regenerated fibers. The only difference with Circulose is that it is made from textile waste instead of wood. Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer in the world. It is what makes up the cell walls of most plants and trees. The purest cellulose found in nature is cotton. HeiQ AeoniQ yarns are made out of cellulosic biopolymers that during growth bind carbon from the atmosphere while generating oxygen. This high-performance yarn is positioned to potentially substitute synthetic filament yarns which constitute over 60% of global annual textile output. Further, when compared to conventional cellulosic products, HeiQ AeoniQ yarns do not draw on arable land, pesticides or fertilizer in their production. HeiQ AeoniQ yarns are designed for cradle-to-cradle circularity and can be recycled repeatedly while maintaining consistent fiber quality. The manufacturing process is expected to consume 99% less water than cotton yarns and HeiQ AeoniQ is designed to offer comparable performance properties to polyester, polyamid and conventional regenerated cellulose yarns. HeiQ/Renewcell Partnership to replace PET and PA Julien Born, CEO of The Lycra Company The change of equity control follows the conclusion of the receivership process that started in February when the New Shareholders initiated an enforcement action against Ruyi Textile and Fashion International Group Limited, the former parent of The Lycra Company, for loan defaults associated with its purchase of The Lycra Company in January 2019. The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, innovates and produces fiber and technology solutions for the apparel and personal care industries. With its new ownership and governance in place, The Lycra Company will continue to focus on accelerating the implementation of its vision, including sustainable solutions that advance circularity, strategic technology partnerships to develop and scale up a wider range of innovative materials, and ongoing digital transformation initiatives. This is fully supported by the new shareholders who have a proven track record of financing and investing in companies across Asia and globally and working with Boards of Directors on business and operational plans to enhance long-term value creation. The new shareholders are committed to further helping The Lycra Company strengthen its financial position and enable its long-term growth.

INDUSTRY NEWS From the raw material to the finished textile – we set standards and support brands, retailers and manufacturers in achieving their environmental, social responsibility and quality goals. For us sustainability is not a trend but a way of life: Together for a better future. With an investment of around € 400 million, Infinited Fiber Company Oy (IFC), Espoo/Finland, plans to build a commercial-scale factory to produce regenerated textile fiber at the site of renewable materials company Stora Enso’s closed Veitsiluoto paper mill in Kemi/ Finland. It is expected to create around 270 jobs in the area. The annual fiber production capacity of the planned factory is expected to be 30,000 tons, which is equivalent to the fiber needed for about 100 million T-shirts. IFCs technology enables cotton-rich textile waste to be transformed into a versatile, high-quality regenerated textile fiber called Infinna, which looks and feels like cotton. Major international fashion and apparel companies – including Inditex, PVH Europe, Patagonia, H&M Group and Bestseller – have already committed to Infinna purchases through multi-year agreements as they look for materials that enable the industry to shift towards circularity. IFC will convert a building housing a discontinued paper production line into an Infinna fiber factory. Both the factory engineering and project implementation as well as the related financing negotiations were commenced at the beginning of the year and are progressing well. Infinited Fiber Company has also agreed on the provision of energy and water-related services with utility infrastructure company Nevel. IFC First commercial-scale Infinna fiber factory Despite the challenges of the past year, Trevira was able to exceed expectations in 2021 with total sales of around € 232 million. The positive signals in the market continued, particularly in the home textiles sector. Business with the flame-retardant fiber brand Trevira CS picked up again in 2021. This area came under pressure in 2020, mainly due to the lockdown measures for the hotel and event sector. Good improvements were achieved in key countries such as Italy, Germany and Scandinavia. However, rising costs (especially energy, but also raw materials, chemicals, packaging) presented the company with major challenges. The first 5 months in 2022 also went well. There is great development activity around the new Trevira CS brands. The trend towards sustainability continues, which is also reflected in the demand for the Trevira CS eco brand. However, there is also strong demand for the UV-stable, spun-dyed filament yarns, which have been specially developed for the outdoor sector and, in addition to flame retardancy, also offer high performance in terms of lightfastness and tear resistance, now that the cruise ship sector is also slowly starting up again after 2 years with corona pandemic. The integration of Trevira GmbH, Bobingen/Germany, into the parent company Indorama Ventures Public Company Ltd. (IVL), Bangkok/Thailand, has progressed rapidly. The Bobingen-based Fibers Business Unit has been assigned to the socalled "Vertical Hygiene" and the Filaments Business Unit in Guben/Germany to the "Vertical LifeStyle". Trevira Positive outlook for 2022

INDUSTRY NEWS 162 melliand International 4/2022 Coats Acquisition of Texon Leading industrial thread manufacturer Coats Group plc, Uxbridge/UK, has acquired Texon, a leader in structural components and materials for the footwear, accessories and apparel industries. Texon Management Ltd., Cleveland/UK, provides high quality structural components to the global footwear market and has a long heritage as a proven supplier to leading brands. The business is focused on sustainable innovation and supplies highperformance, sustainable, materials, including heel counters, toe puffs and insoles to the highly attractive premium athleisure footwear market. Texon, which has operations in Asia and Europe, is a complementary addition to Coats’ existing footwear business with attractive commercial opportunities from leveraging Coats' existing footprint. IVL Acquisition of wool spinning assets in Italy and Poland In order to add more sustainable products to its portfolio, including a full traceability project of the fibers used for yarns and fabrics, as well as to provide synergies with existing assets, IVL has completed the acquisition of the wool spinning businesses in Italy and Poland of Tollegno 1900. One of the leading European textile groups with a total spinning capacity of around 3,500 tons of yarn per year with a specific focus on flat knitting and hand knitting yarns, Tollegno 1900 SpA, Tollegno/Italy, is a strategic fit for IVL’s unique integrated business platform. With this acquisition, Indorama Ventures Public Company Ltd. (IVL), Bangkok/Thailand, secured 2 assets, including a spinning and dyeing operation in Poland and a yarn dyeing operation in Italy. The acquisition will make a significant contribution to the sustainable growth of IVL’s Wool business, which is part of the company’s Fibers segment. It will also strengthen the company’s footprint for worsted yarns in Europe and help extend its wool products globally with trading subsidiaries in America and Asia. The operations will be renamed Filatura Tollegno 1900. The CEO Giovanni Germanetti will continue in the same role, facilitating continuity and exploring new growth as part of IVL. Lincoln Germanetti, the President and co-CEO of Tollegno, will remain as COO. Nextil closed 2021 with sales of € 63.4 million, 8% more than in the previous year, and achieved an EBITDA of € 4.7 million compared to the negative EBITDA of € 8.9 million recorded in 2020. This improvement was possible despite supply chain disruptions due to the shutdown in China and the exponential rise in raw material, energy and transport prices, which had a negative impact of around € 1 million. The optimization measures implemented in the company during the last fiscal year, both operational and strategic, and the focus on higher value-added segments allowed for a substantial recovery in profitability levels. Thus, the EBITDA margin was 7.4%, already exceeding pre-pandemic levels (3.2% in fiscal 2019) and well above the negative percentage of 2020 (-15.3%). EBIT in 2021 was almost € 918,000, compared with a loss of € 22 million in 2020, confirming the recovery trend. Nextil Group, Barcelona/Spain, seeks to consolidate this sustainable growth through a strategy that has 4 main axes: nearshore production, service excellence, development of more sustainable products and technical innovation. This strategy is also supported by the new production center that the company is building in Guatemala with the aim of optimizing production costs, obtaining European and US certifications and opening the supply to volumes that are currently manufactured in Asia. The first of the 2 plants is expected to be operational in August 2021 and in full operation as of May 2023. However, the group’s factory in El Masnou (Barcelona) will cease operations, since it has not been possible to solve the technical problems which have been dragging on for some years. In addition, it has been difficult to pass on the increase in the cost of raw materials and energy to the customer, which has significantly eroded margins. Finally, the appointments of Jorge Fernández Miret as a proprietary director (consejero dominical), as well as that of Richard Rechter Leib as an independent board member, have been approved, and Eduardo Navarro Zamora has been ratified as a proprietary director (consejero dominical). Nextil +8% sales for 2021 Plans to scale-up production capacity by several thousand tons a year and expand its production network outside of Europe have been announced by AMSilk, a leader in supplying innovative high-performance bio-based silk materials. The company’s scalable biotechnological platform and patent portfoliomeans it is able to produce large quantities of premium bio-fabricated silk materials in constant quality. AMSilk GmbH, Munich/Germany, also announced that co-founder and CTO Dr. Lin Römer has stepped down from the management team and board, and will move to a part-time consultancy role supporting AMSilk with his broad and versatile expertise and know-how. After 14 years, Römer has decided to pursue new opportunities outside of the AMSilk Increased production of bio-based silk company. Over the past decade, he has been dedicated to the success and the growth of AMSilk, and he has been instrumental in bringing its biotech products from the lab to industrial scale, resulting in the successful market launch of the world’s first artificial spider silk products. In May 2022, Klaus Kjeldal was appointed Chief Production Officer and Managing Director to lead the scale-up of AMSilk’s protein production.