Chemical Fibers International 2/2022

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Chemical Fibers International 1/2022 49 LEADER Stakeholders across the textile industry are constantly faced with a variety of challenges that affect every step of the supply chain, from the sourcing of materials through the environmental impact of a finished product. In recent years, many of these challenges have served as a catalyst, pushing the industry towards a more sustainable future. Sustainability in textiles has long been rooted in the use of post-consumer recycled material. The use of recycled content is no longer a unique selling point; it is the standard to which we are all held. Recycling is a necessary step towards sustainability goals that provides a number of advantages, including removing the need for new raw materials, reducing the carbon emissions produced to make products, and keeping a significant portion of existing materials out of waste systems. However, recycling has never been the final answer; it is just the first step in our sustainable journey. It is imperative that we take a holistic and comprehensive approach to sustainability. At PrimaLoft, this is done through the lens of the Relentlessly Responsible platform that is focused on elevating both performance and sustainability, through innovation. We break down our work into 2 major themes: what we make, and how we make it. At the end of the day, we are working to extend the useful life of materials while reducing the carbon footprint of the products’ production. The model for sustainable production is not linear, it is a loop system. It all starts with that first step: using raw material made from recycled content. This not only diverts plastic from landfills, oceans and other environments, it significantly reduces the carbon emitted during production. From there, it is essential that we develop end materials that are designed to provide high performance and to last the entire life of a garment – from the first person to wear it off the rack, through its extended life as it is passed down or resold. How the products are made matters just as much as the materials used. Suppliers need to focus on minimizing their carbon footprint during manufacturing. Reducing energy consumption through updated production processes and more efficient sources of energy is a crucial component, with one example being the recent updates PrimaLoft made with its PURE (produced using reduced emissions) manufacturing technology. Recycled packaging options and reduced shipping distances can also help to reduce the impact across the supply chain. We must also focus on how to reduce impact during the life of a product. Microfibers that shed from textiles during use and laundering have become a tremendous issue – 30% of microfibers found in the ocean are from textiles. Combatting this issue through the use of biodegradable material has become a trending topic within the textile industry. A key technology in the synthetic textile space is e.g. PrimaLoft Bio, which was developed to accelerate the degradation of synthetic fibers, returning them to materials found in nature if fibers are shed from the apparel and make their way to environments like landfills, wastewater or oceans. This reduces the long-term impact of microplastics in those environments. In order to close the loop, suppliers need to ready their material for chemical and textile to textile recycling. Traditional mechanical recycling methods are prone to producing lower quality materials. We need to focus on building up the infrastructure that will enable large-scale implementation of chemical and textile to textile recycling, so that materials can be remade into new products that achieve the same level of high performance, starting the loop over again. Looking to the future, reducing our footprint means moving past simply using recycled content. Our industry needs to move away from fossil fuel-derived textile materials from the start. Removing the need for fossil fuel-based raw materials all together, should be a definitive goal. Companies like Origin Materials are leading the way in the development of carbon negative materials. The Origin platform uses waste from wood, carboard and pulp to create carbon negative materials that reduce the need for fossil fuels. In recent months, PrimaLoft has partnered with Origin Materials and utilized this technology to produce fine denier fibers suitable for use in textiles. The companies will continue to collaborate on a multi-year development plan to commercialize this disruptive technology, with the hopes to have prototypes ready by 2023. Ultimately, technological advancement does not need to come at the expense of environmental or social responsibility. This is the core of the Relentlessly Responsible mission. The necessary change that is needed to push the textile industry forward cannot be achieved by any company alone. We must continue to work together, both within our space and across other industry sectors. Every link in the chain, from manufacturing through retail and consumers, will have a part to play. Innovative technologies that reduce impact will proliferate throughout the textile industry and beyond. PrimaLoft = registered trademark Mike Joyce President and CEO PrimaLoft Saratoga County, NY/USA A holistic approach to sustainability

50 Chemical Fibers International 2/2022 CONTENTS Leader 49 A holistic approach to sustainability M. Joyce Industry News 52, 53, Raw material news 54 (Aquafil, Asahi Kasei, Domo Chemicals, Polymetrix, Sulzer Chemtech) 55, 56, 60 Fiber news (Aalto University/University of Helsinki, Honeywell, Teijin Frontier, Thai Acrylic Fibre, Toray) 52, 54, Current acquisitions and cooperations 56, 57, (Ascend/Formulated Polymers, Avient/DSM 60, 68 Protective Materials, Borealis/Grabher; Chemtex/Xinfengming Group, Kordsa/TRB Lightweight Structures; Renewcell/Birla/ Daiwabo) 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 66 Fiber production news (AmSilk, BB Engineering, Erema, IFC, Lenzing, Monomatic, Natural Fiber Welding, Oerlikon, PFNonwovens, Spinnova, Starlinger) 56, 57, Company finances 63, 66 (IVL, Oerlikon, RadiciGroup, Suominen) 54 Visualization of GHG emissions in the supply chain (Asahi Kasei) 60, 62 Trade fairs, exhibitions and conferences (Dornbirn GFC, ITMA, Techtextil/Texprocess) 61 European composites market almost back to pre-crisis level (AVK) 62 Enzymatic recycling for colored PET textiles (Carbios) 63 Drop in consumption of raw materials (ITMF) 66 30th anniversary of STFI 67, 68 Nonwovens news (Avient, Borealis/Grabher, Sandler) 67 European nonwovens production up in 2021 (Edana) Fibers 69 Development of glass fiber/PET hybrid yarn for thermoplastic composites M.E. Heper 2 Chemical Fibers International Fiber Polymers, Fibers, Texturing and Spunbonds May 2022 Volume 72

CONTENTS 71 Regenerated cellulose fibers — great potential for sustainable and tough fiber-reinforced composites N. Graupner, J. Müssig, T. Huber 74 Novel spider silk fiber for nerve healing (University of Bayreuth) 75 Is there still a future for polymer-based fibers for textile applications post COP26? H. Christiaen Fiber Production 78 Impact of draw ratio and winder speed on the fiber properties of PET FDY R. Turukmane et al. 80 Greater European synthetic fiber producers: acrylic fibers, high-performance fibers, mineral fibers and metal fibers 86 High-speed elongation rheometer — determination of elongational viscosity A. Bier et al. 88 Numerical model for the investigation of forces and torques in the twist unit in false-twist texturing M. Schmitz, T. Gries 104 Interview with U. Scherbel (AMSilk): Protein fibers with great potential Nonwovens 90 Use of artificial intelligence at SMEs in the nonwovens industry R. Kins et al. Techtextil preview 92-103 Exhibitor preview articles on the Techtextil 2022 in Frankfurt/Germany 64, 66, 68, 77 Management 77, 79 New books Inner back cover Imprint Inner back cover Company index Chemical Fibers International 2/2022 51

52 Chemical Fibers International 2/2022 INDUSTRY NEWS The Polymetrix SSP technology is globally being selected as the preferred decontamination and polycondensation process for the production of food grade PET and industrial yarn grade PET. Further solid state polycondensation (SSP) capacity of 8.5 million tons/year for the virgin polyester (PET) and recycled polyester (rPET) production will be installed: Approx. 1.8 million tons/year of PET and rPET production have been commissioned recently. Another 3.6 million tons/year are under construction and will be on stream in 2022 and 2023. The Q1/2022 orders, for more than 3.1 million tons/year of capacity, will hit the market by 2023/2024. The capacity additions for bottle grade PET are in the range of 7 million tons/year, for industrial yarn PET approx. 0.5 million tons/year and another 1 million tons/year for recycled PET. The rPET investments are taking place on all continents with focus points in Europe, the Americas and Asia. The PET investments are mainly located in Southeast Asia, India, Pakistan, China, Africa and the Middle East. Polymetrix AG, Oberbüren/ Switzerland, designs, engineers and supplies PET processing and recycling plants using highly energy efficient proprietary SSP and decontamination technologies. The company has experience in building rPET plants at Polymetrix 8.5 million tons of new PET and rPET SSP capacity Xinfengming Group has recently signed a contract with Chemtex (Shanghai) Chemical Engineering Co., Ltd., Shanghai/China, for a 900 tons/day fiber grade high viscous polyester production plant. This plant is the 19th polyester plant agreement between Xinfengming Group and Chemtex in China. The project adopts the KTS (Koch Technology Solutions, formerly Invista) continuous polymerization process, which represents one of the most advanced technologies in the world, and Chemtex provides technical authorization, detailed design, key equipment procurement, on-site technical service and plant start-up guidance for the project. Xinfengming Group Co., Ltd., Tongxiang/China, founded in February 2000, is a modern large-scale company integrating PTA, polyester, polyester spinning, texturing, and import and export trade. It is a joint-stock company with more than 20 subsidiaries including Zhongwei, Huzhou Zhongshi Technology, Dushan Energy, Jiangsu Xintuo, etc., with more than 10,000 employees. The company mainly adopts melt direct spinning production technology, introduces the world's advanced polyester equipment and spinning equipment, and mainly produces various specifications of polyester filaments such as POY, FDY, and DTY. Chemtex Another contract with Xinfengming Group A strategic partnership has been formed by Asahi Kasei with US-based Genomatica regarding hexamethylenediamine (HMD) based on biomass-derived raw materials (bio-HMD). Asahi Kasei Corp., Tokyo/ Japan, currently uses fossil fuel-derived HMD as an intermediate to manufacture Leona polyamide (PA) 66, an engineering plastic featuring very good heat resistance and rigidity. PA 66 is used for plastic parts in automotive and electronics applications, as well as yarn for airbag fabric, and demand is expected to increase worldwide. The strategic alliance with Genomatica, Inc., San Diego, CA/USA, provides Asahi Kasei with preferential rights to access the early volume of bio-HMD to evaluate the possibility as a feedstock of PA 66, enabling accelerated trials of PA 66 made using biomass-derived intermediate. Genomatica has an established track record of commercializing manufacturing technology for various chemical products using biotechnology. By using this bio-HMD with its own PA 66 polymerization technology, Asahi Kasei aims to support its goal to be first-tomarket with more sustainable PA 66 made using biomass-derived intermediate for the automotive and electronics appliAsahi Kasei PA 66 from biomass-derived intermediate cation of plastics components and industrial fiber. Moreover, the company expects that this use of biotechnology will contribute to reaching its goal of becoming carbon neutral by 2050, while also alleviating the environmental burden throughout the life cycle of customers’ products. various levels of integration: pellet to pellet with SSP decontamination only, flake to pellet with sorting, extrusion and SSP as well as integrated rPET plants from postconsumer bottles to food grade pellets.

INDUSTRY NEWS Chemical Fibers International 2/2022 53 No. 1 on Regenerated Cellulosics Developed to support the increasing global demand for polylactic acid (PLA) bioplastics, NatureWorks’ new fully integrated plant will utilize Sulzer Chemtech’s advanced lactide purification and polymer production technology to produce 75,000 tons of Ingeo PLA annually. The polymer is used in applications like compostable food packaging. Opening of the new plant, which is located in Thailand, is expected in 2024. Selected to design and supply lactide purification, polymerization and devolatilization units at NatureWorks’ newest facility, Sulzer Chemtech AG, Winterthur/ Switzerland, will provide technology, engineering services and key equipment to design and supply fully customized production solutions meeting NatureWorks’ specific requirements. Crystallization technology will deliver high-purity lactides suitable for Ingeo PLA grades, while the polymerization and post-reaction train will convert lactide into the full portfolio of Ingeo grades. Extensive support during the project execution phases will also be provided to help NatureWorks LLC, Plymouth, MN/ USA begin its operations quickly and smoothly. As part of the company’s global manufacturing expansion plan, the new facility will increase NatureWorks’ overall production capacity of lactic acid, lactides and advanced Ingeo PLA biopolymers. In February NatureWorks moved from Minnetonka, MN/USA, to its new headquarters and R&D facility in Plymouth. Made from renewable resources, these biomaterials have a lower carbon footprint than average petroleum-based plastics and support a wide range of applications, including compostable food packaging and serviceware, fibers, filaments for 3D printing, hygiene masks and household appliances. Sulzer Chemtech Bioplastics production technology for NatureWorks’ new plant Domo Chemicals, a global leader in engineered material solutions and fully integrated producer of PA 6, has achieved production of 5 million tons of caprolactam at its German site. This quantity is equivalent to approximately 225,000 truckloads. Domo Caproleuna GmbH, Leuna/Germany, a German subsidiary of Domo Chemicals, Ghent/Belgium, has been producing caprolactam and polyamide at the site since 1994. During this period, production capacities have been gradually expanded to the current 176,000 tons/year. The world's first industrial scale caprolactam production plant went into operation in Leuna as early as 1942. Since the Domo Group took over the caprolactam plants in 1994, the technology and processes have been continuously enhanced and improved. Over the past 20 years, Domo Caproleuna has been able to reduce specific energy consumption in medium-pressure steam by 30% and in low-pressure steam by 40%, thus continuously optimizing the manufacturing process. Sustainability is one of the strategic pillars for the Group. The company is committed to neutral CO2 emissions growth by 2030, respectively from 2019, establishing a 15% reduction in the caron content of its energy mix and a 7% reduction of industrial waste. Caprolactam is primarily required to proDomo Chemicals 5 million tons of caprolactam in Leuna duce PA 6 and is further processed in the company's own polymerization facility, which is integrated on-site, to produce the high-tech engineering plastics under the brand names Domamid and Technyl. Domamid is primarily used as a base polymer for engineering plastics, textiles and film applications. Technyl is the leading polyamide-based compound for a variety of industry segments such as automotive, electricals and electronics, and industry and consumer goods.

54 Chemical Fibers International 2/2022 INDUSTRY NEWS Meeting the growing demand in the automotive, electrical & electronics, and industrial consumer goods industries, Domo Chemicals GmbH, Leuna/Germany, is making investments to expand production capacity of the high-performance polyamides Technyl in China. The global demand for polyamide materials is currently booming at a CAGR of up to 3%. The adoption of new energy vehicles (including pure electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles) is expected to reach 45% globally by 2030, and automakers are increasingly using sustainable materials to make components, which are key growth drivers of the polyamide market. Asia is the fastest growing market for polyamides in the world, with the majority of that growth concentrated in China. As an integrated producer of PA 6/66, Domo Chemicals is committed to improving and expanding its production facilities in China in order to increase capacity and establish a strong presence. To this end, Domo Chemicals will continue to expand the capacity of its production site in Jiaxing/China, which has been planned to be gradually introduced in 3 stages: • Since March 2022, an additional 6,000 tons of capacity has been made available, with the plant achieving the total capacity of 14,000 tons of PA6 from April onwards. • A 35,000-ton new plant in Haiyan is planned to be completed in the 3rd quarter of 2023, in which Domo Chemicals has invested more than € 14 million (CNY 97 million). • Going forward, Domo Chemicals will further expand the plant, gradually increasing its capacity to 50,000 tons. Domo Chemicals acquired Solvay's Performance Polyamides business in 2020 and has sold the Technyl products globally since February 1, 2022, including in China, one of the company's key strategic markets. Domo Chemicals Production expansion in China A platform has been jointly established by Asahi Kasei Group, Tokyo/Japan, and NTT Data Corp., Tokyo/Japan, to grasp the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and calculate the carbon footprint of products (CFP) for each grade of performance plastics used as molding material for automotive parts, consumer electronics, etc. Use of the platform began in April 2022, and CFP data provision to customers will begin in May 2022. The Asahi Kasei Group has sequentially advanced the calculation of CFP for each product, starting with the main products Leona, Tenac, Tenac-C, Xyron, and Thermylene. The company’s performance plastics business has more than 10 each of manufacturing sites and sales sites worldwide, and it provides products and technical service to customers around the world. The CFP of each material procured from upstream suppliers is added to the GHG emissions calculated proportionally in outsourced processing and inhouse manufacturing processes, enabling visualization of CFP inclusive of the supply chain from upstream to manufacturing and shipment. CFP is quantitatively calculated by combining the total GHG emissions from the entire life cycle of products and services, from raw material procurement to disposal and recycling, and then converting the figure into the equivalent amount of CO2. Asahi Kasei’s CFP calculation is based on “Cradle-to-Gate” assessment, which combines upstream emissions of materials and transportation, emissions from in-house manufacturing processes, and energyrelated emissions such as electricity used during manufacturing. Asahi Kasei Visualization of GHG emissions in the supply chain As a global leading company for polyester (PET) virgin and regeneration technology, Aquafil Engineering GmbH, Berlin/Germany, is building a demonstration plant with new EverPET technology in Arco/ Italy. This plant will be in the position to produce 100% post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET in small scale for customer and test samples for different PET customer applications (bottle, carpets, film, yarn, multi-layer packaging). This new unit is based on latest research and lab results of the already proven technology which is used since long time in industrial production. The new demo plant will open up new fields of circular economy, as it will be equipped with the company’s unique new decoloration and multi-layer separation section. With EverPET technology, polyester waste, such as bottles that can no longer be used or production scrap normally destined for disposal, is recovered and transformed into a new product with having same characteristics as polyester made of virgin raw material. Already years ago Aquafil Engineering have produced 100% PCR bottles, yarn and film on pilot machines. Aquafil Chemical regeneration technology for rPET Ascend Acquisition of Formulated Polymers Ascend Performance Materials LLC, Houston, TX/USA,has reached an agreement to acquire the compounding division of Formulated Polymers Ltd., a leading engineered materials manufacturer in Chennai/India. This acquisition will establish Ascend’s first manufacturing base in the subcontinent and strengthen Ascend’s global reach in the electrical and e-mobility application space. The deal includes a world-scale manufacturing facility in Chennai as well as warehouses throughout India. Formulated Polymers, which has operated over 3 decades as a polyamide compounder in India, is currently a licensee of Ascend’s Starflam flame-retardant polyamides. This acquisition provides a good growth opportunity for Ascend in India.