Worldwide Textile Journal melliand International April 2022 D 5862 E 2 For further information visit us at www.oerlikon.com/polymer-processing Innovation starts with Creativity “We have been consistently inspiring the global manmade fiber industry with disruptive, sustainable innovations for over 100 years. ” Georg Stausberg CEO, Oerlikon Polymer Processing Solutions R @ OHNMDDQ NE SGD L@ML@CD jADQ HMCTRSQX ENTMCDC HM @KV@XR NQHDMSDC NM SGD FTHCHMF RS@QR NE HMMNU@SHNM @MC SDBGMNKNFX KD@CDQRGHO VHSGHM @ FKNA@K L@QJDS environment – this is us, the Oerlikon Barmag of today. A strong entrepreneurial spirit and boundless creativity have shaped us. We are OQNTC NE NTQ DMSHQD FKNA@K VNQJENQBD 3GD BQD@SHUD TSHKHY@SHNM NE HSR DWODQHDMBD @MC JMNVKDCFD ONSDMSH@K HM BKNRD BNKK@ANQ@SHNM VHSG GHFG ODQENQL@MBD O@QSMDQR RTOOKHDQR and services providers is the key to our sustained success. We focus on close BNNODQ@SHNM VHSG NTQ BTRSNLDQR NEEDQHMF SGDL L@QJDS NQHDMSDC HMMNU@SHNMR @MC RDQUHBDR 3GDRD @QD A@RDC NM HMSDQCHRBHOKHM@QX SD@L NQHDMSDC CDUDKNOLDMS VNQJ @MC GHFG PT@KHSX OQNCTBSHNM OQNBDCTQDR (M SGD ETSTQD VD VHKK BNMSHMTD SN BNMRS@MSKX PTDRSHNM DRS@AKHRGDC OQNBDRRDR @MC AQD@J CNVM BNMUDMSHNM@K OQNBDCTQDR @MC V@XR NE SGHMJHMF !DB@TRD HMMNU@SHNM RS@QSR VHSG BQD@SHUHSX MC VD @BSHUDKX OQNLNSD SGDRD VHSG NTQ LTKSHBTKSTQ@K @MC open corporate culture. ON W LINE E ARE Our digital content home! textiletechnology.net
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melliand International 2/2022 41 LEADER The images and news from Ukraine have affected us all deeply. The unthinkable has become a terrible reality: War in Europe. The humanitarian and economic consequences are not yet foreseeable. In addition, the corona pandemic continues to impact society and the global economy. The Ukraine crisis has hit the economy in the midst of recovery from the Covid-19 pandemic. The exact impact of the Russia-Ukraine war on the German and European economies cannot yet be quantified. European industry has faced disrupted supply chains, uncertain energy supplies and other disruptions to core business since the corona pandemic began 2 years ago, and these have now been exacerbated by Russia's hostilities towards Ukraine. Many companies are seeing their economic recovery set back by non-delivery, production disruptions and further increases in the cost of energy, raw materials and supplies. Rising material and energy costs have a significant impact on product prices, which can only be passed on to customers to a limited extent. The industry's hoped-for return to pre-Covid-19 pandemic business levels by 2022 is thus a distant prospect. Since January 2021, natural gas prices in Germany have increased 8-fold and electricity prices 5-fold. A further increase in energy costs has been recorded since the start of the war. Many companies have hardly any leeway left or already have their backs against the wall financially. Politicians are called upon to intervene in the short term. Noticeable relief for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of energy prices is necessary. Should gas become scarce in Europe because supplies from Russia are further restricted or completely cut off, the situation for energy-intensive companies in the textile industry could become even more dramatic and threaten their very existence. In this case, there is a threat of skyrocketing energy prices at an already historically extremely high price level. In the event of a possible disruption to the gas supply in Germany, many companies would have to stop purchasing gas. This would have dramatic economic consequences for the entire textile industry. Systemically important companies would continue to be supplied, but they would also be affected – through their suppliers. The supply chains would then face an unprecedented burden. This would also affect life-saving supply chains in Germany, such as medical textiles or protective clothing for the armed forces and police. In addition to dramatically rising energy and material prices, the Russia-Ukraine war is impacting the economy in the form of sanctions and disrupted supply chains. The current situation is likely to further exacerbate supply bottlenecks in Germany and the EU. Many intermediate products are already hard to come by or even completely unavailable due to the disruptions caused by the pandemic. The war has heightened this problem. According to a survey conducted by the IVGT in February 2022, German textile companies are (still) short of fibers (including glass and carbon fibers), yarns, cotton fabrics, nonwovens, polyester, polyacrylic, polyamide 66, para and meta-aramids, canvas, dyes, textile auxiliaries/chemicals (hydrochloric acid and caustic soda are still in short supply), plastic granules, adhesives, cardboard, films and spare parts. The situation in container shipping also remains tense and is frequently characterized by delays, scarce transport capacities and significantly increased prices for sea transports. Container ships are currently avoiding the Black Sea due to the conflict and are taking less direct and significantly more time-consuming and costly routes. The detour of cargo ships, together with high energy prices, is having an impact on freight rates and delivery times, and thus also on supply chains from the Far East. Added to this are the strict Covid-19 measures in China, which are leading to interruptions in production and in some cases to temporary closures of individual ports. Triggered by the situation in Ukraine, the supply bottlenecks in Germany are likely to be aggravated by a lack of truck drivers. Almost half of the truck drivers employed here come from Eastern Europe, many of them from Ukraine. The manufacturing sector and related supply chains will feel the effects of the pandemic and war for a long time to come. There is reason to fear that the force of the strongly pricedriving factors such as material and energy costs, and bottlenecks in global transport capacities, will not be overcome so quickly. We will probably experience a longer phase of uncertainty. The resulting challenges are great, but also offer opportunities for redesigning processes and supply chains. The growing awareness of the general public and the economy for sustainable products is also playing an ever-increasing role. The sustainable orientation of the supply chain is maturing into a significant competitive factor. Socially and ecologically produced goods are in greater demand than ever before. I am convinced that the trend for greener products in the EU will continue to grow. This crisis can also be an opportunity for the European textile industry. The world has changed dramatically Michael Pöhlig Managing Director Industrieverband Veredlung – Garne – Gewebe – Technische Textilien e.V. (IVGT), Frankfurt/Germany
CONTENTS 42 melliand International 2/2022 2 melliand International Worldwide Textile Journal April 2022 Volume 28 50, 51, 56 Anniversaries (Oeko-Tex, Oerlikon Barmag, STFI) Fibers/Yarns 57 A versatile approach to textile recycling and to handle feedstock heterogeneity in a circular economy M.S. Sebastiá 59 Microbially produced silk fibers with high strength (Washington University) 60 Modification of PLA by reactive extrusion for industrial fiber applications C. Burgstaller, S. Riepler Spinning 62 Wear level monitoring — online monitoring of the wear of card clothing K. Heilos, H. Fischer, D. Thal, A. Faasen Leader 41 The world has changed dramatically M. Pöhlig Industry News 44 Birla Cellulose: net zero carbon emissions across all its operations 44, 45, 51, 53, 54 Company finances (IVL, Lenzing, Mayer & Cie., Nextil, Oerlikon, Spinnova) 45, 49, 50, 54 Current acquisitions, cooperation (Perlon/Nowo Products, Lässer/Saurer Embroidery Division; IFC/Afry, VF Corp./The North Face) 46, 49 Fiber news (Lenzing, Spinnova, Toray) 47 WoodMac: markets count cost of Russian invasion 48 Enzymes for circular PET process (Carbios) 48 Wacker: use of bioethanol for softeners 52 ITMF: drop in consumption of raw materials 52 ITMA 2023: space application reaches 93% 53 Business expectations remain favorable along value chain(ITMF)
melliand International 2/2022 43 CONTENTS 78 The road to CO2 neutrality in textile finishing A. Pieper Textile Industry 80 Fabrication of crease recovery tester J.A. Alase, S.A. Patil 83 Objective pilling testing with artificial intelligence — a portable laboratory system L. Gerold, D. Veit 86 Innovative braiding technology for elastic high-tech braids (Jumbo-Textil) 87 Textile industry: achieving environmental compliance with automated wastewater treatment D. Williams 90 Sustainable textile fibers for clothing, lightweight construction and greening (TITK) 92 Interview with T. Wagner: Greenwashing — What does the Supply Chain Due Diligence Act change? 54, 70, 73, 77 Management 70, 77, 86 New books 82 Calender (in melliand Textilberichte) 91 Company Index / Imprint 64 Effect of wool/polyester blend proportion on ring spun worsted yarn properties P.P. Kolte et al. 66 The science of winding (SSM) Weaving 66 Glued inset mail eyes and high-speed leno weaving B. Götz Knitting 68 Knitted auxetics R. Milautzcki, F. Ficker Textile Finishing 71 Flame lamination — better than its reputation? J. Beck, M. Saritekin 74 Daylight-induced antiviral functional textile materials P. Tang et al.
INDUSTRY NEWS 44 melliand International 2/2022 Thanks to its strategic focus on woodbased specialty fibers and the predominantly positive market environment, cellulosic fiber producer Lenzing AG, Lenzing/ Austria, recorded a significantly improved sales and earnings performance in 2021 compared to the previous year. Sales grew by 34.4% to € 2.19 billion. Increasing optimism in the textile and apparel industry ensured a strong rise in demand and prices on the global fiber market, particularly at the beginning of the reporting year. Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) almost doubled to € 362.9 million (2020: € 192.3 million). The EBITDA margin rose from 11.8% to 16.5%. In 2021, the focus of the measures was on sustainability – the Lenzing Group has been named a sustainability champion several times worldwide and is one of 14 companies with an AAA rating by CPD. Investments in 2021 rose by 26.3% to € 844.3 million. The sharp rise in investment volumes is primarily due to the implementation of 2 key projects in brazil and Thailand. A state-of-the-art lyocell plant was opened in Thailand with a nominal capacity of 100,000 tons/year (see page 46 of this issue). The investment volume is approx. € 400 million. In Brazil, the largest pulp mill of its kind with a nominal capacity of 500,000 tons/year is being built together with the partner Dexco (formerly Duratex), with Lenzing holding 51% of the joint venture. Construction work continued to progress on schedule during the year under review, despite the challenges related to Covid-19. Commissioning is therefore still planned for the 1st half of 2022. Construction costs are expected to come in at US$ 1.38 billion. In addition, Lenzing is investing more than € 200 million in its production sites in China and Indonesia in order to convert existing capacities for standard viscose into capacities for environmentally friendly specialty fibers. In Nanjing, Lenzing is working on converting a line to Tencel modal fibers. The portfolio of the Chinese fiber plant will thus consist entirely of specialty fibers by the end of 2022. In the course of the investment in Purwakarta/ Indonesia, the entire viscose production will be brought up to EU Ecolabel standards. The site will thus become a pure specialty viscose supplier by 2023. Lenzing Sales and earnings significantly improved Spinnova Sales increase in FY2021 In the financial year 2021 (FY2021), Spinnova’s revenue reached € 6.06 million (FY2020: € 254,000). During this period, the vast majority of the revenue was derived from the technology delivery project to Spinnova’s joint venture (JV) company, Woodspin, and delivery of a technology proof-of-concept project to Spinnova’s joint venture company, Respin. The remainder of the revenue during the period and all revenue in 2020 consisted primarily of proof-of-concept related R&D services and development projects provided by Spinnova Oy, Jyväskylä/Finland, to brand partners under joint development agreements. Operating loss for the period was € 4.08 million (2020: € 3.48 million) and total investments were € 4.37 million (2020: € 3.67 million). Spinnova expended their fiber technology to the waste-based raw material. Most natural man-made textile fiber can be produced out of many feedstock, without harmful or complex chemical processes, with the touch and feel of natural fibers such as cotton and linen. Spinnova reached many milestones in 2021 as they delivered against their strategy. In H2/2021 the main scaling priority, building the first commercial scale factory for Woodspin, proceeded according to plan. Woodspin is the joint venture of Spinnova and Suzano SA, Salvador/Brazil. The factory construction in Finland is expected to be ready for technology installations by the end of the summer 2022, and the factory is to be completed by the end of 2022. The factory will include Spinnova’s and Suzano’s joint venture Woodspin’s fiber production, Suzano Finland’s micro-fibrillated cellulose refining, as well as Spinnova’s headquarters. This is Suzano’s first production investment outside of Brazil. Spinnova also finished building a pilot production line in Finland in December 2021 as planned for Respin, a JV between Spinnova and KT Innovations AG, Hünenberg/Germany. Respin has now begun working towards commercializing the disruptively circular Spinnova leather waste fiber. Respin will pay a total € 2.5 million to Spinnova for the pilot production line and R&D services in the course of the proof-of-concept phase that is estimated to take one year. Having won the Innovative &Sustainable Supply Chain Award in 2021, Birla Cellulose plans to bring down its net carbon emissions to zero across all its operations by 2040, with a possibility to reach it earlier by 2035. The company also targets to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity to half by 2030 from the baseline of 2019. The net-zero announcement by Birla Cellulose, Mumbai/India, the pulp and fiber business of Grasim Industries Ltd. a flagship company of the Aditya Birla Group, Mumbai, aligns with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 7 and 13 on climate change and affordable and clean energy. Currently, around 40% of the energy for the global operations of Birla Cellulose comes from renewable sources. Furthermore, the carbon sequestered in its directly managed forests exceeded the entire scope 1 and scope 2 emissions from global sites during the year. The company is an industry leader in sustainability practices such as sustainable forestry (ranked #1 in Canopy Hot Button Ranking 2021) and officially has the lowest water intensity for viscose and lyocell production. It has recently commissioned the first Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) plant in the MMCF industry. Birla Cellulose Net zero carbon emissions across all its operations
INDUSTRY NEWS melliand International 2/2022 45 in parallel with: techtextil.com Frankfurt am Main 21. – 24. 6. 2022 Experience the future. Beyond innovation. Perlon Acquisition of Nowo Products The producer of twisted monofilaments for the global paper industry Nowo Products Sp.z.o.o., Kluczbork/Poland, has been acquired by Perlon – The Filament Company. Perlon GmbH, Munderkingen/Germany, specialized in the production of synthetic filaments for the paper, brush, cosmetics and dental industries. This acquisition is considered a vertically integrated investment for the Perlon Group. All 40 employees and production lines of Nowo Products will also be taken over. Global sustainable chemical producer IVL has reported a record performance in 2021 as the economic recovery drove demand across the company’s global footprint. In 2021, Indorama Ventures Public Company Ltd. (IVL), Bangkok/ Thailand, delivered operational EBITDA of US$ 1.74 billion (+55% year-on-year) on production volumes of 14.72 million tons (+7%). Consolidated sales increased 38% to $ 14.63 billion as consumer confidence rebounded and the company’s resilient model benefited from rising inflation, energy price hikes and supply chain shocks. IVL’s combined PET segment posted a 39% increase in EBITDA to $ 1.1 billion in the context of strong demand and low inventories. The resetting of PET contracts in 2022 is expected to capture higher freight rates and the consequent beneficial impact on import parity. The segment is expected to enjoy improved margins in 2022. Fibers segment delivered a 37% increase in EBITDA of $ 268 million as volumes rose 11%. Margins widened due to tighter markets and a favorable product mix, with setbacks coming from energy and commodity price increases, while the ongoing semiconductor shortage impacted the Mobility vertical. IVL will continue to invest in its platform and its people. D i s c i p l i n e d capital allocation of about $ 5 billion of free cash flow will create opportunities to meet stakeholders’ expectations. Project Olympus, the company’s efficiencies and business transformation project, is tracking ahead of 2023 budget, and the company raised its expectation to more than $ 650 million in annual recurring EBITDA gains by 2024. The company committed to being an industry leader in sustainability under its new ‘Vision 2030’ strategy. Here, IVL plans to invest in technology to capture carbon from its operations, increase renewable energy consumption, and phase out coal. It will invest more in PET recycling and introduce bio-based feedstock in about a third of its polyester-based value chain. Additional measures to future-proof the company include developing leaders with a growth mindset and empowering them with the right tools to lead. IVL Global recovery drove volume
INDUSTRY NEWS 46 melliand International 2/2022 Continuous Coating Coating, Drying and Laminating - the basic functions of the «KTF-S» We will show you to achieve the optimal performance from the «KTF-S» It doesn‘t pay to use a production machine when producing small lengths The modular design of the continuous coating system ©.7) 6ª LV WKH FRVW H FLHQW DQVZHU Market leaders are using Mathis technology 21. - 24.6.2022 Frankfurt am Main, DE Hall H12, Booth E93 Toray 100% plant-based PA fiber A polyamide (PA) fiber that incorporates 100% bio-based synthetic polymer content has been developed by Toray. Ecodear N510, will be the first 100% plant-based PA fiber in Toray’s Ecodear portfolio. The company has created diverse potential applications for Ecodear N510 as a sustainable offering for high-end markets. While primarily for sports and outdoor fabrics they extend to lightweights, cut-and-sew fabrics through innerwear lace materials. Toray Industries, Inc., Tokyo/ Japan, already offers partially plant-based polyester (PET), PA, and other polymers. It developed Ecodear N510 by polymerizing Sebacic acid from castor-oil plant and Pentamethylenediamine from corn and spinning. Unlike other wholly plant-based PAs, the new fiber has a high melting point and outstanding dimensional stability. It is as strong and heat-resistant as PA6. Companies can thus create products that are sustainable without compromising performance. The Lenzing Group has successfully completed its key lyocell expansion project in Thailand. The new plant, the largest of its kind in the world with a capacity of 100,000 tons/year, started production on schedule and will help to better meet the increasing customer demand for Tencel branded lyocell fibers. The construction of the plant in Prachinburi/Thailand, around 150 km northeast of Bangkok, started in H2/2019 and proceeded largely according to plan, despite the challenges arising from the Covid-19 pandemic. Investments amounted to approx. € 400 million. Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, will continue to expand its production capacity for lyocell fibers in line with its sCore Ten strategy, which aims to generate 75% of its fiber revenue from eco-responsible specialty fibers such as Tencel, Lenzing, Ecovero and Veocel fibers by 2024. The Thailand site offers space for several production lines. The investment in the first phase already includes general infrastructure that would benefit future expansion. However, the company will continue to look for opportunities to expand lyocell production in other parts of the world too. Together with the key project in Brazil and the substantial investments at the existing sites in Asia, Lenzing is currently implementing the largest investment program in its corporate history with more than € 1.5 billion. Lenzing Start of new lyocell plant in Thailandwww.textiletechnology.net