Chemical Fibers International 4/2021

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Chemical Fibers International 3/2021 141 LEADER In December 2017, the European Man-Made Fibres Association (CIRFS), togetherwith the European Textile andApparel Confederation (Euratex), the International Association for Soaps, Detergents and Maintenance Products (AISE), the European Outdoor Group (EOG), and the Federation of European Sporting Goods Industry (FESI) signed an agreement (CIA: Cross Industry Agreement) to address the release of microplastic in the aquatic environment. The CIA initiative was acknowledged by the European Commission under the “Plastics Strategy” in January 2018. The associations, representing the global value chain of garments and their associated maintenance, agreed that viable solutions need to be found to the release of microplastic into global waters during the entire lifecycle of textiles. It was recognized that a scientifically valid, harmonized test method was a pre-requisite to study possible options and explore policy measures to address the unintentional release at global level. Value of a harmonized test method: The method should enable the collection and evaluation of data for a more rapid and comprehensive understanding of the challenge, to optimize research and promote action and innovation to address it. The aim was to allow for a simple and effective comparison of textile fabrics, adapted to all types and fabric structures and based on instrumentation commonly found in all textile testing laboratories. Multiple method parameters were reviewed and tested under various conditions to allow reproducibility. The basis was a test specimen subjected to an accelerated laundering under appropriate conditions of temperature, time and mechanical actions. Fiber loss was assessed gravimetrically to approximate it during domestic laundering. 10 laboratories were involved. Thanks to the creation of the CIA, there have been a large number of significant academic publications and many industry discussions on textile fragments in the environment, emission routes and potential effects on bio-organisms. These have contributed considerably to the current knowledge. It is important to note that “fiber fragmentation” has become the preferred term within the textile community. Indeed, there has been recurring confusion with the term “microfiber”, historically used to describe man-made fibers finer than 1 denier or dtex (diameter less than 1 μm), and fabrics made of these. The term “microplastic” which includes plastic fragments, particles or fibers with a diameter less than 5 mm is currently not an agreed legal definition. Myths and facts: Microplastics in the environment originate from a wide number of sources, e.g. the degradation of plastic debris, tires, textiles etc. While some methods exist to characterize microplastics found in water, no globally harmonized test methods are available yet. Fiber fragmentation from textiles can originate both from synthetic and from natural materials. All textile materials experience fiber fragmentation, from apparel to home textiles and technical textiles. Likewise, fiber fragmentation can occur during all phases of the product’s life cycle frommanufacturing to consumer use and end-of-life. It was thought to be a consequence both of laundering and the inability of washingmachines andwastewater treatment plants (WWTP) to prevent these fragments from reaching the effluents. Recent studies suggest the WWTP may be able to remove up to 97-99.9% of synthetic textile fiber fragments from the wastewater. This could mean that home laundering may not be the predominant emission source. Similarly, current literature on fiber fragments in water (and air) suggests that natural textile fibers constitute a greater proportion than synthetic fibers. Risks: The potential impact of fiber fragments on aquatic environments, marine life and human health is raising concern, with potential risk in the fiber as well as chemical additives on/in these. Available data are however still scarce. Scientists advising the European Commission (SAPEA) concluded that the best evidence suggests that microplastics and nanoplastics do not pose a wide risk to humans or the environment, except in small pockets. However, that evidence is limited, and the situation could change if pollution continues at the current rate [1]. Therefore, research concludes that drawing meaningful conclusions on microplastics toxicity is premature. Additional research is therefore needed on ecotoxicological effects and the leaching of additive chemicals associated with microplastic fibers. Outcome and next steps: Furthermore, an agreement on a harmonized test method was reached in September 2021, following a large stakeholder engagement. The next step is the collaboration with CEN to deliver an official standard, which will proceed, considering a use of the latter in the coming months. Also, the members of the CIA will intensively continue their research and information sharing efforts and gather more data to better understand fiber fragmentation to develop effective solutions to manage the phenomenon appropriately. This will be a pre-requisite before possible measures and policy action can be proposed. From the beginning, the aim has been to try and harmonize global methods on textile fiber shedding in order to be as effective as possible. Regular communication between all stakeholders, even beyond Europe, will continue. [1] SAPEA report, Towards a new standard on fiber shedding Frédéric Van Houte Director General CIRFS Brussels/Belgium

142 Chemical Fibers International 4/2021 CONTENTS Leader 141 Towards a new standard on fiber shedding F. Van Houte Industry News 144 $ 200 million investment in next-generation textile R&D to 2030 (RGE) 144, 150 Company finances (Lenzing, Oerlikon, Rieter) 145 Potential of circular high-performance fibers (Teijin Aramid) 145 Asahi Kasei closed Roica spandex production in Europe 146 New carbon negative cellulose filament yarn (HeiQ Materials) 146 Biodegradable polyester staple fiber (Advansa) 147 Metallized recycled polyester yarn (Marchi & Fildi) 148 Polyamides from renewable raw materials (RadiciGroup) 150 Technology partnership between A.Celli Nonwovens and Oerlikon Nonwoven 151 20th anniversary of CNITA 151 Nonwoven sheet made from 100% textile waste (Suominen/IFC) 152-154 International news Raw Materials 155 Recovering of polyester markets (Reliance Industries) 155 Invista celebrates 50 years of ADN technology 156 Large investment in biodegradable polymers (Hengli) 157 MEG: global overcapacity, regional tightness — and next? J. Rivera Fibers 158 Carbon nanofibers to drive hydrogen fuel cell development (Grupo Antolin) 159 Major decrease in shipments of draw-texturing machinery 2020 (ITMF) 160 Polyethylene vs. para-aramid fibers P.J. Lemstra, B.J. Lommerts 164 Bio-based PA 11 fiber (IFG) 4 Chemical Fibers International Fiber Polymers, Fibers, Texturing and Spunbonds December 2021 Volume 71

Chemical Fibers International 3/2021 143 CONTENTS 165 Liquid glycerol core fibers (Empa) 166 Property optimization of PAN-fibers based on improved air-gap spinning technology F.-G. Niemz Fiber Production 169 Greater European synthetic fiber producers: polyamide fibers 173 German chemical fiber production fell again in 2020 (IVC) 174 Innovative systems concept for HT yarns R. Dolmans 176 Stress relaxation studies in polyester filaments S.D. Asagekar, P. Katkar 178 False-twist shaft texturing machine (SSM) Nonwovens 179 Recycled polyester: innovative technical applications S. Viju 181 New approach to the meltblown-paradox C. Bruns, A. Nickel 183 Simulation of meltblown processes — parameter study for polymer temperature and viscosity S. Antonov, W. Arne, D. Hietel 185 Nonwovens made from blends of banana/polypropylene fibers N.B. Timble Textile Industry 187 High-pressure composite hydrogen vessels reinforced by mineral fibers (Isomatex) 146, 150, 180, 187 Management 186 New book for the fiber industry Inner back cover Imprint Inner back cover Company index

144 Chemical Fibers International 4/2021 INDUSTRY NEWS The Lenzing Group reported a significant year-on-year improvement in revenue and earnings in the first 9 months of 2021 thanks to the largely positive market environment. Growing optimism in the textile and apparel industry and the recovery in retail led to a substantial increase in demand and prices on the global fiber market, particularly at the start of the current financial year. Revenue rose by 32.9% to € 1.59 billion in the first 9 months of 2021. This increase is attributable to a higher sales volume as well as higher viscose prices thanks to significantly higher demand for fibers, especially in Asia. The focus on wood-based specialty fibers such as the Tencel, Lenzing Ecovero and Veocel also had a positive impact on the revenue trend; the share of specialty fibers in fiber revenue amounted to 72.4% in the reporting period. This more than offset the negative impact of less favorable currency effects. EBITDA more than doubled to € 297.6 million (compared to € 138.5 million in Q1-3/2020). The EBITDA margin rose from 11.6% to 18.7%. Net profit for the period amounted to € 113.4 million (compared to a net loss of € -23.3 million in Q1-3/2020). With its wood-based, biodegradable Veocel fibers, Lenzing is also benefiting from new legislation such as the Single-Use Plastics Directive (EU) 2019/904. Lenzing welcomes the measures taken by the EU to combat plastic pollution. The Single-Use Plastics Directive stipulates uniform labelling requirements for some of the single-use plastic products either on the packaging or on the product itself from July 3, 2021. They encompass feminine hygiene products and wet wipes for personal and household care containing plastic. In a study published in October 2021, scientists from the renowned academic research institute Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) of the University of California, San Diego, CA/USA, confirmed that wood-based cellulosic fibers are quickly degraded in the ocean at the end of their lifecycle, which makes them a clearly superior alternative to fossil-based synthetic fibers. The study arose from an independent project aiming to understand “end-of-life” scenarios for textiles and nonwovens discarded in the environment. While wood-based cellulosic fibers fully biodegraded within 30 days, the fossil-based fibers tested were practically unchanged after more than 200 days. Lenzing Strong 3rd quarter Celebrating the first anniversary of the launch of carbon-zero Tencel branded fibers, the Lenzing Group, Lenzing/Austria, expanded its carbon-zero Tencel branded fibers to Refibra technology to address the growing industry demand around “circular fashion” and carbon neutrality. The first carbon-zero Tencel branded lyocell and modal fibers, which launched in 2020, have continued to gain momentum among industry partners including fashion brands and mills. Available in September 2021, the expansion aims to provide more innovative solutions for fashion brands to meet carbon reduction targets and consumers to enjoy sustainable products, reinforcing Lenzing’s commitment to achieving net-zero CO2 emissions by 2050. The expansion demonstrates Lenzing’s solid commitment to building a truly sustainable textile industry also via increased circularity through the Refibra technology. This pioneering technology involves upcycling cotton scraps from garment production and transforming them into cotton pulp. The cotton pulp is then added to sustainably sourced wood pulp to produce virgin Tencel lyocell fibers. Lenzing Expansion of carbonzero Tencel fibers Royal Golden Eagle (RGE), Singapore, has released its 2021 progress report on its commitment to invest US$ 200 million in next-generation textile fiber innovation and technology over a ten-year period which started in 2019. The annual report provides an update on the activities undertaken by RGE and its business groups involved in the fashion value chain to advance its ambition towards closed-loop, circular and climatepositive cellulosic fiber. Through its business groups Sateri in China and Asia Pacific Rayon (APR) in Indonesia, RGE is the world’s largest viscose producer with a total annual production capacity at 1.4 million tons. Sateri and APR source woodbased dissolving pulp from sustainably managed renewable plantations in Indonesia and Brazil through RGE-managed companies, APRIL and Bracell. In 2021, Sateri, Shanghai/China, achieved full compliance with the emission limits set out in the European Union Best Available Techniques Reference Document (EU-BAT BREF) for all of its 5 viscose mills in China, 2 years ahead of schedule. Bracell completed construction of the world’s largest and greenest new generation pulp mill in São Paulo/Brazil which uses cutting-edge technology for fossil fuel-free generation. Sateri strengthened its strategic collaboration with Infinited Fiber Company, Espoo/ Finland, participating in the company’s € 30 million funding round, which attracted new and existing investors such as H&M Group, Adidas, Bestseller and Zalando. New partnerships formed by RGE included a 5-year textile recycling research collaboration with Nanyang Technological University Singapore, and a 3-year strategic partnership with the Textile and Fashion Federation Singapore which seeks, among others goals, to advance research and innovation in circular economy approaches to fashion waste in Asia. RGE’s in-house R&D team has made good progress in advancing its textile-to-textile project, focusing on producing quality viscose using recycled cotton textiles as feedstock. To support plans to build a textile recycling facility in Indonesia, and as part of commercial feasibility analysis, studies examining the availability of textile waste and textile recycling landscapes in China, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were completed. Sateri remains on track in developing a product with 50% recycled content by 2023, and to reach 100% by 2030. It also aims for 20% of its feedstock to contain alternative or recycled materials by 2025. In this similar vein, APR will source 20% of its feedstock from alternative or recycled materials by 2030. RGE $ 200 million investment in next-generation textile fiber R&D to 2030

INDUSTRY NEWS Chemical Fibers International 4/2021 145 No. 1 on Regenerated Cellulosics Due to the new, unexpected and critical market situation, Asahi Kasei Corp., Osaka/Japan, has made the decision to restructure its production strategy. As part of this process, the production and sales of the elastane fiber Roica at its subsidiary Asahi Kasei Spandex Europe GmbH in Dormagen/Germany will be discontinued by March 31, 2022. The premium stretch fiber Roica is produced by Asahi Kasei in production sites in Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, China, and Germany with strategic sales facilities around the world. The company will continue to develop sales, technical and marketing services in Europe through Asahi Kasei Europe GmbH, Düsseldorf/Germany, the European headquarters. It will especially focus on Roica products manufactured at its production sites in Asia. Asahi Kasei took over the Dormagen site in 2005 with the purchase of Dorlastan Fiber GmbH from Lanxess AG, a spinoff company of Bayer AG, Leverkusen/Germany. Bayer produced the elastane fiber Dorlastan on this site since 1961. The step means the exit of elastane yarn production from Germany. Asahi Kasei Spandex Europe Closure of Roica production The world leader in aramid Teijin Aramid BV, Arnhem/The Netherlands, has achieved yarn-to-yarn recycling for its flagship product, the paraaramid fiber Twaron. This development is a key step toward Teijin Aramid’s goal of supplying fully circular highperformance fiber. For more than 20 years, Teijin Aramid has been recycling aramids such as Twaron into pulp, which is then used in automotive brake pads and gaskets. Now, for the first time, the company’s Research and Innovation Center in Arnhem has successfully achieved yarn-toyarn recycling using feedstock from end-of-life materials. Several hundred kilograms of aramid yarn have now been produced from materials of various recycling statuses. The properties of this circular aramid fiber are excellent, and its performance is equal to that of standard Twaron fiber. Teijin Aramid has a patent pending for this breakthrough technology. Teijin Aramid has now partnered with FibreMax BV, Joure/Netherlands, and Hampidjan, Reykjavík/Iceland, to demonstrate the performance in demanding real-life applications. Using the circular Twaron will make up more than 90% of the final product’s weight. In line with its belief that circular products will be the ‘new normal’, Teijin Aramid will scale up production of its fully circular high-performance fiber with the aim for circular Twaron to be commercially available in 2024. Teijin Aramid Potential of circular high-performance fibers The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, globally launched a new insulation made from textile waste at the digital fair Performance days on December 1-2. The company is also presenting its firstever performance fibers made from 100% textile waste. Textile waste represents a substantial sustainability challenge across the textile and apparel industry. The Lycra Company is committed to doing its part to help the planet by introducing Coolmax and Thermolite EcoMade technologies made from 100% textile waste, which lays the groundwork for a circular system (see CFI 2/2021, p. 57). These fibers are the result of a strategic collaboration between The Lycra Company and Itochu Corporation, Osaka/Japan, a general trading company with strength in consumer-related sectors, including the textile business. The textile waste technology platform has now been extended to include new Thermolite EcoMade insulation made from textile waste that will be introduced at the digital fair. The new broad offer enables the apparel value chain to choose sustainable solutions for their collections made from the recycled resources they prefer – textile waste or recycled PET bottles available previously. EcoMade products deliver comparable performance to the virgin fibers they replaced. The Lycra Company New isolation fibers from textile waste Kelheim Fibres GmbH, Kelheim/ Germany, and Renewcell, Stockholm/Sweden, have signed a Letter of Intent for a long term commercial collaboration to add the crucial missing link for a circular economy for textiles in Europe. Together, the 2 technology partners will collaborate on developing commercial scale production of high quality viscose fibers from up to 10,000 tons of Renewcell’s 100% textile recycled material Circulose annually. The collaboration paves the way toward a fully European closed loop inwhich textilewaste is collected, recycled and regenerated into new Circulose fibers for people that want to reduce their fashion footprint significantly. Kelheim Fibres see an excellent fit between the 2 companies. The new recycled cellulose fiber solution – made of Renewcell’s Circulose and manufactured at the Kelheim plant – is an answer to the fashion industries need for sustainable, resource and waste-reducing solutions, and a more regional and reliable supply chain. Kelheim Fibres Partnership with Renewcell

146 Chemical Fibers International 4/2021 INDUSTRY NEWS On October 31, 2021, Peter Ruß, member of the Supervisory Board of the dfv media group, celebrated his 80th birthday. In addition to publishing, Ruß is primarily involved in the fundamental financial and business management issues of the Deutscher Fachverlag and acts as the interface with the Lorch family of shareholders. Ruß is an experienced businessman, an acknowledged financial expert and an accomplished publishing manager. The successful development of the company is closely associated with his name: For more than 5 decades, he has been committed to the dfv media group. As one of the largest independent specialist media companies in Germany and Europe, dfv media group – Deutscher Fachverlag GmbH, Frankfurt/Germany, generated sales of a good € 110 million in 2020. In addition to the textile technological trade media under the TextileTechnology umbrella brand (melliand Textilberichte, melliand International, Technical Textiles/Technische Textilien, nonwovensTRENDS, Chemical Fibers International), the dfv publishes around 80 other trade media brands, such as TextilWirtschaft, Lebensmittel Zeitung and Horizont. The company also organizes over 100 events each year. In September, Stefan Doboczky, longstanding Chief Executive Officer of the cellulosic fiber producer Lenzing AG, Lenzing/Austria, and the Lenzing Supervisory Board came to a mutual agreement to terminate his contract before the end of his term. Doboczky informed the Supervisory Board that he will not be available for a further extension of his contract. Cord Prinzhorn, CEO and co-owner of the Austrian paper and packaging company Prinzhorn Group, has been appointed interim Chief Executive Officer. He has been a member of Lenzing’s Supervisory Board since the Annual General Meeting in April 2021. When Prinzhorn assumed the role of CEO on November 4, 2021, his Supervisory Board mandate was suspended for the time being. HeiQ Materials AG, Schlieren/Switzerland, announced the introduction of HeiQ AeoniQ – a high-performance cellulose yarn based on a new fiber derived from carbon negative materials. This high-performance yarn is positioned to potentially substitute synthetic filament yarns like polyester and polyamide. HeiQ AeoniQ yarns are designed for cradle-to-cradle circularity and can be recycled repeatedly while maintaining consistent fiber quality. The manufacturing process, which is totally different from other processes but not as complicated as other viscose processes, is expected to consume 99% less water than cotton yarns and HeiQ AeoniQ is designed to offer comparable performance properties to polyester, polyamide and conventional regenerated cellulose yarns. According to the company, the new yarn has therefore a huge industry transformation potential. HeiQ is ready to deliver the first HeiQ AeoniQ yarns from the pilot production plant in Q2/2022. HeiQ is inviting a maximum of 20 sustainability-driven brand partners to be the first to market with products made of future yarn. HeiQ announces that The Lycra Company, Wilmington, DE/USA, will act as primary development partner for HeiQ AeoniQ yarns with an exclusivity for stretch and performance fabrics. The Lycra Company has a complete range of certified, sustainable products and is continuously complementing this range via the development of new types of Lycra fiber. These fibers have the potential to be combined with HeiQ AeoniQ yarn to create unique decarbonizing and degradable elastic fabrics. Martin Gebert-Germ, a viscose filament yarn expert with 30 years of experience in the textile industry, will join the newlyestablished HeiQ GmbH Austria as CEO and will be leading the HeiQ AeoniQ business from November 2021. HeiQ Materials New carbon negative cellulose filament yarn Typical plastic materials are estimated to break down within 500 years, causing environmental, animal, and human health concerns. Here, biodegradable plastics could be part of the solution against plastic pollution. Advansa Marketing GmbH, Hamm/Germany, a company focused on the development and eco-responsible production of a broad range of specialized technical fibers, including short cut fibers for paper &wetlaid processes, launched ADVA terra – a biodegradable polyester fiber made of 100% recycled feedstock. The ability to be degraded by microorganisms in biologically active environments is a contribution to reduce the pollution potential of articles containing plastic. Advansa applies an innovative technology to combine sustainability and biodegradability in one product. ADVA terra fibers originating from 100% post-consumer PET bottles are engineered via proprietary modifications to provide biodegradation capabilities without sacrificing from favorable mechanical properties of PET. Products made from ADVA terra have the same properties as conventional nonbiodegradable standard fibers and can be processed just as easily. In addition, ADVA terra is suitable for recycling after completing lifecycle. ADVA terra is available as water dispersible short cut fiber for the paper and wet-laid nonwoven industry as well as staple fiber for dry-laid nonwovens and tow for the floc industry in various fineness and cut length combinations. Thus, ADVA terra can be used in production across diverse end-use applications, even for applications with food contact. According to laboratory studies based on the ASTM D5511 test scheme, ADVA terra is expected to biodegrade to 30-60% within 12 months – a degradation rate comparable to some natural fiber materials which may take from some months to few years. Advansa Biodegradable polyester staple fiber